|PREPOSITIONS. Appendix 104 To The Companion Bible. PAGE 1|
For the true understanding of the New Testament a knowledge of the Greek Prepositions is indispensable.
They might be exhibited in groups, or according to the Cases¹ of the Noun which they govern, or according to their geometrical relations to a line, a superficies, and a solid, or according to the relative frequency of their occurrences.² But we have given them below in their alphabetical order, so that they may be more readily found by the reader. They are eighteen in number, and may thus be defined:— i. ana governs only one case (the Accusative), and denotes up, upon, formed from ano (as kata is from kato, with which ana stands in direct antithesis). In relation to vertical lines it denotes the top. With numerals it is used as a distributive (Matthew 20:9, 10. Luke 9:3. John 2:6); also adverbially (Revelation 21:21). ii. anti governs only one case (the Genitive), and denotes over against, or opposite. Hence it is used as instead of or in the place of (for example Matthew 2:22. Luke 11:11); and denotes equivalence (for example Matthew 20:28. Hebrews 12:16. 1Peter 3:9), while huper (Number xvii, below) denotes in the interest of, or on behalf of (Luke 6:28. John 17:19). iii. amphi is used only in composition in the New Testament and is rare in Classical Greek. It denotes about, or around. Used of a solid, it denotes both sides. iv. apo governs only one case (the Genitive), and denotes motion from the surface of an object, as a line drawn from the circumference; it thus stands in contrast with ek (Number vii below), which denotes a line drawn from the center; while para denotes a line drawn as a tangent, thus—
Hence, it is used of motion away from a place (for example Matthew 3:16; 8:1. Acts 15:38); marking the distance which separates the two places, or the interval of time between two events (for example Matthew 19:4. Acts 20:18). It also marks the origin or source whence anything comes, such as birth, descent, residence (for example Matthew 2:1; 15:1; 21:11. Acts 10:23; 17:13), or of information (for example Matthew 7:16).
Apo may consequently be used of deliverance or passing away from any state or condition (for example Matthew 1:21; 14:2. Mark 5:34. Acts 13:8; 14:15. Hebrews 6:1).
It would thus differ from hupo (Number xviii, below), which would imply a cause immediate and active while apo would imply a cause virtually passive, and more remote. v. dia governs two cases (the Genitive and Accusative).
1. With the Genitive it has the general sense of through, as though dividing a surface into two by an intersecting line. It includes the idea of proceeding from and passing out (for example Mark 11:6. 1Corinthians 3:15. 1Timothy 2:15. 1Peter 3:20). Compare diameter.
In a temporal sense; after an interval (Matthew 26:61. Mark 2:1. Galatians 2:1).
From the ideas of space and time dia (with the Genitive) denotes any cause by means of which an action passes to its accomplishment (for example Matthew 1:22. John 1:3. Acts 3:18. 1Corinthians 16:3. 2Corinthians 9:13); hence, it denotes the passing through whatever is interposed between the beginning and the end of such action.
¹ The Cases governed by the Prepositions stand in the following proportion: Genitive, 17; Accusative, 19; and Dative, 15, according to Helbing (Schanz's Beitrage, No. 16 (1904), page 11.
² On page 98 of his Grammar of New Testament Greek, Professor J. H. Moulton gives a list as follows:—If en represents unity, the order of the frequency of the other Prepositions work out thus: eis, ·64; ek, ·34; epi, ·32; pros, ·25; dia, ·24; apo, ·24; kata, ·17; meta, ·17; peri, ·12; hupo, ·08; para, ·07; huper, ·054; sun, ·048; pro, ·018; anti, ·008; and ana, ·0045.
2. With the Accusative it has the sense of on account of, or because of (for example Matthew 27:18. Mark 2:27. Revelation 4:11), indicating both the exciting cause (Acts 12:20. Romans 4:25. 1Corinthians 11:10), the impulsive cause (for example John 12:9. Romans 4:23; 15:15. Hebrews 2:9), or the prospective cause (Romans 6:19; 8:11; 14:15. Hebrews 5:3). vi. eis governs only one case (the Accusative). Euclid uses eis when a line is drawn to meet another line, at a certain point. Hence, it denotes motion to or unto an object, with the purpose of reaching or touching it (for example Matthew 2:11; 3:10. Luke 8:14. Acts 16:10).
From this comes the idea of the object toward which such motion is directed (for example Matthew 18:20, 30. 1Corinthians 12:13. Galatians 3:27); and for, or with respect to which such action or movement is made.
In contrast with eis, pros (Number xv, below) may mark one object as the means of reaching an ulterior object which is denoted by eis (for example John 6:35. Romans 5:1. Ephesians 4:12). It is the opposite of ek (Number vii), below. vii. ek governs only one case (the Genitive), and denotes motion from the interior. See under apo (Number iv, above, and diagram there). It is used of time, place, and origin. It means out from, as distinguished from apo (Number iv, above), which means off, or away from. Ek marks the more immediate origin, while apo marks the more remote origin; of expressing the intermediate meanings. viii. en governs only one case (the Dative), and denotes being or remaining within, with the primary idea of rest and continuance. It has regard to place and space (for example Matthew 10:16. Luke 5:16), or sphere of action (for example Matthew 14:2. Romans 1:5, 8; 6:4).
It is also used for the efficient cause as emanating from within, and hence has sometimes the force of by, denoting the instrument, with, passing on to union and fellowship; en denoting inclusion, and sun (Number xvi, below) denoting conjunction. En denotes also continuance in time (Matthew 2:1; 27:40. John 11:10).
2. with plural = among. ix. epi governs three cases (the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative), and denotes superposition.
1. With the Genitive it denotes upon, as proceeding or springing from, and answers to the question "Where?" (for example Matthew 9:2; 10:27. Mark 8:4. Luke 22:30. John 6:21).
With the idea of locality it conveys the sense, in the presence of (for example Matthew 28:14. Mark 13:9. Acts 24:19. 1Corinthians 6:1).
With the idea of time, it looks backward and upward, for example "in the days of" (Matthew 1:11. Hebrews 1:2).
With the idea of place, it denotes dignity and power (for example Matthew 23:2. Acts 12:21. Romans 9:5. Revelation 2:26).
2. With the Dative it implies actual superposition, as one thing resting upon another, as upon a foundation or basis which may be actual (for example Mark 6:25, 28, 39), or moral (for example Matthew 18:13. Mark 3:5). Both senses occur in 1Thessalonians 3:7.
Hence it is used of the moving principle or motive suggesting the purpose or object (for example Ephesians 2:10), and sometimes including the result (for example 2Timothy 2:14).
3. With the Accusative it implies the downward pressure on that upon which a thing rests; active motion being suggested (for example 2Corinthians 3:15. 1Timothy 5:5).
Hence, it denotes any extended motion downward (Matthew 13:2; 18:12; 19:28; 27:45) from heaven to earth (Mark 4:20. Acts 11:15. 2Corinthians 12:9).
Compared with pros (Number xv, below), pros marks the motion, the direction to be taken, while epi (with Accusative) marks the point to be reached.
This downward pressure may be that of the mind, or feeling (for example Matthew 25:21; 27:43. Hebrews 6:1. 1Peter 1:13).
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|PREPOSITIONS (cont.). PAGE 2|
For the difference between eis (Number vi, above) and epi (with the Accusative) see Romans 9:21, "one vessel unto (eis) honour", and verse 23, "riches of glory on (epi) the vessels of mercy". x. kata governs two cases (the Genitive and Accusative), and denotes two motions, vertical and horizontal.
1. With the Genitive it denotes vertical motion, the opposite of ana (Number i, above), descent, or detraction from a higher place or plane (for example Matthew 8:32. Mark 5:13); and direction to, or against (for example Mark 9:40. John 18:29. Acts 25:27. 2Corinthians 13:8).
2. With the Accusative it denotes horizontal motion, along which the action proceeds (for example Luke 8:39; 10:33. Acts 5:15; 8:26. Philippians 3:14). Sometimes it includes the purpose or intention (for example 2Timothy 1:1; 4:3. Titus 1:1). In this connection eis (Number vi, above. 2Timothy 4:14) marks the more immediate purpose, pros (Number xv, 3. Ephesians 4:12. Philemon 5) the ultimate purpose; and kata (Number x, 2) the destination to be reached. It has regard to the duration of the motion (for example Matthew 27:15. Hebrews 3:8) and the accordance, conformity or proportion of the two things which such motion thus connects (for example Matthew 16:27; 23:3; 25:15. Luke 2:22). xi. meta governs two cases (the Genitive and the Accusative), and denotes association and companionship with. It thus differs from sun (Number xvi, below), which denotes proximity to, and hence conjunction or coherence. Compare Ephesians 6:23 (meta) with Ephesians 4:31 (sun); and 1Thessalonians 3:13 (meta) with Colossians 3:3 (sun).
1. Hence meta, with the Genitive, denotes among, amid (for example Matthew 26:58. Mark 1:13. Revelation 21:3), or in company with (for example Matthew 9:15. John 11:31. 2Thessalonians 1:7. Revelation 14:13).
It refers specially to the mental disposition with which an action is performed (for example Matthew 12:30. Mark 3:5. Luke 1:39; 9:49. John 8:28. 2Corinthians 7:15).
2. With the Accusative it means after, always in connection with time (for example Matthew 17:1; 26:32. John 13:7. Hebrews 4:7; 7:28). xii. para governs three cases (Genitive, Dative, and Accusative), and the uniform meaning is beside, or alongside of. See apo, Number iv, above, and compare diagram there.
1. With the Genitive it denotes from beside, implying the source from which anything proceeds (for example Matthew 2:4; 21:42. Luke 2:1; 6:19. Acts 26:10. Philippians 4:18).
As distinguished from hupo (Number xviii, below) it denotes the general sense of motion, while hupo marks the special sense or efficient cause of such motion.
As distinguished from apo (Number iv, above) it marks the motion from a person (for example Matthew 2:16), while apo may imply motion from a place (for example Matthew 2:1).
2. With the Dative it denotes rest beside and at a person, place, or thing, expressing rest and position there (for example John 19:25. Acts 9:43); laid up with, or in store with (for example Matthew 6:1. Luke 1:30), or proximity to (for example Matthew 22:25. Colossians 4:16).
Hence it implies in the power of (Matthew 19:26. Luke 1:37); in the judgment of (for example Romans 2:12. 2Peter 2:11).
3. With the Accusative it denotes motion to a place, so as to be alongside it (for example Matthew 15:29. Mark 4:1). Hence, beside and beyond, and so against (for example Acts 18:13. Romans 1:25, 26; 4:18. 1Corinthians 3:11. Galatians 1:8); and beside, that is to say, more or less than (for example Luke 3:13; 13:2. Romans 14:5. 2Corinthians 11:24). Compare pros, number xv, below.
xiii. peri governs two cases (Genitive and Accusative), and denotes around, or about, like a completed circle. Hence concerning. It marks the object about which the action of the verb takes place.
1. With the Genitive it means as concerning, or as regards, but always with the primary idea, and marking the central point of the activity (for example Matthew 4:6. Luke 24:19, 27, 44).
2. With the Accusative it denotes the extension of such activity, hence, around (for example Mark 9:42. Luke 13:8. Acts 28:7. Philippians 2:23). xiv. pro governs only one case (the Genitive), and denotes the position as being in site, or, before one, in place (for example Luke 7:27; 9:52. James 5:9); time (for example Matthew 5:12. John 17:24. Acts 21:38); or superiority (for example James 5:12. 1Peter 4:8). xv. pros governs three cases (the Genitive, Dative, and Accusative), and denotes to, or, toward, implying motion onward. Its general meaning with the three cases is the motive—as in consideration of (with the Genitive); in addition to anything—as an act (with the Dative); with a view to anything—as an end (with the Accusative).
Compared with para (Number xii, above), pros denotes only direction and tendency, whereas para denotes both motion and change of place of some object.
1. With the Genitive the only occurrence is Acts 27:34.
2. With the Dative it occurs five times: Luke 19:37. John 18:16; 20:12, 12. Revelation 1:13.
3. With the Accusative, see for example Matthew 2:12; 3:10; 21:34; 26:57. Mark 5:11; 11:1; 14:54. Luke 7:7. Acts 6:1. 1Thessalonians 3:6. xvi. sun governs only one case (the Dative). See under meta (Number xi, above) (for example Luke 23:11. Romans 6:8). xvii. huper governs two cases (the Genitive and Accusative), and denotes above, or over, with respect to the upper plane of a solid. Latin, super.
1. With the Genitive it is used in its relative rather than its absolute sense. In the place of (for example John 11:50; 18:14. Romans 5:6. 1Timothy 2:6. Philemon 13. 1Peter 3:18).
In the interests of (for example 2Thessalonians 2:1).
In behalf of (for example Matthew 5:44. Acts 9:16).
For the purpose of (for example John 11:4. Romans 15:8. 2Corinthians 12:19. Philippians 2:13).
With the Genitive huper is connected with peri, being the apex of the triangle, or the fixed point of the compass, whereas peri (see Number xiii, above) is the circle described around it. Hence huper has regard to feeling, and implies the pleading a case on behalf of another, whereas peri implies the mere description of the circumstances of the case (for example 1Peter 3:18. Jude 9).
2. With the Accusative it denotes beyond, in excess of measure, honour, number, or time (for example Matthew 10:24. 2Corinthians 1:-8. Ephesians 1:22. Philippians 2:9. Philemon 16). xviii. hupo governs two cases (the Genitive and Accusative), denotes the under side of a solid, and is thus the opposite of huper (see Number xvii, above).
With the Genitive it describes motion from beneath; with Dative (not used in the New Testament), position beneath; and with the Accusative, motion or extension underneath.
1. With the Genitive, hupo is used to mark the efficient or instrumental agent, from under whose hand or power the action of the verb proceeds (for example Matthew 1:22; 2:16. Luke 14:8).
2. With the Accusative, it denotes the place whither such action extends (for example Matthew 8:8. Mark 4:32. James 2:3).
Hence it implies moral or legal subjection (for example Matthew 8:9. Romans 6:14; 7:14; 16:20. 1Timothy 6:1).
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