LAWS BEFORE SINAI.

This Is Appendix 15 From The Companion Bible.

  The existance of Laws in the book of Genesis and Exodus is evident, though there is no formal record of their delivery. Compare Exodus 18:16.
  Doubtless some were made known to mankind, as such, by God, for example, (1) the Law of the Sabbath (Genesis 2:
3). (2) The days noted in the connection with the flood are all sabbaths except one, Genesis 8:5, Tuesday. See note on Genesis 8:10, 12, 14. (3) The law of the place to worship (Genesis 4:3, 4, 16). (4) The law of offerings (Genesis 4:4), etc.
  But, side by side with these special Divine communications, the Babylonian laws were codified in the age of Abraham.
  In
A.D. 1901, the Code of Amraphel (Khammurabi), Genesis 14:1, was discovered in Susa by M. J. de Morgan. The latest date for this code is 2139 B.C.
  Eight hundred years before Moses, these laws governed the peoples from the Persian Gulf to the Caspian Sea, and from Persia to the Mediterranean, and were in force throughout Canaan.
  This discovery overthrew the two main pillars of the "higher critics", one of which was that such writing was unknown before Moses; the other, that a legal code was impossible before the Jewish kings.
  Hence, we have now before us both codes; and are in a position to answer Jehovah's question in Deuteronomy 4:
8, "What nation is there so great, that hath statutes and judgments so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?"
  Khammurabi calls his laws the "judgments of righteousness", but some of them, at least, are both unrighteous and unequal, as the following brief contrast shows at a glance:—
Offence. Punishment by Jehovah's Law. Punishment by Khammurabi's Law.
Stealing.  Restoring double (Ex. 22:9).  Death (§ 4).
Burglary.  Restoring double (Ex. 22:7).  Death (§ 21).
Harbouring a fugitive slave.  No offence (Deut. 23:15).  Death (§ 16).
Injuring a slave.  Freedom given to slave.  Master compensated (§ 199).
Injuring a rich man.  Same injury inflicted on injurer.  Same injury inflicted on injurer (§§ 196, 197).
Injuring a poor man.  Same injury inflicted (Ex. 21:23-25).  Fine of one mina of silver (§ 198).
Injury followed by death to a rich man's daughter.  Each case judged on its own merits.  Death of injurer's daughter (§ 209).
Injury followed by death to a poor man's daughter.  Each case judged on its own merits.  Fine of 5 shekels of silver (§§ 211, 213).
  We see the laws of Khammurabi operating in Genesis in the following instances:
 1.  The law of adoption made Eliezer Abram's heir (Genesis 15). § 191.
 2.  The giving of Hagar to Abraham (Genesis 16); and of Bilhah (Genesis 30:
4) and Zilpah (Genesis 30:9) to Jacob, accorded with this code. § 146.
 3.  The purchase of Machpelah by Abraham (Genesis 23) was conducted in strict conformity with its commercial enactments. § 7.
 4.  The taking of life for stealing, proposed by Jacob to Laban (Genesis 31:
32), was enacted by this code, which punished sacrilege with death. § 6.
 5.  The taking of life by burning, with which Judah threatened his daughter-in-law Tamar (Genesis 38:
24), is also according to the Babylonian code. § 110.
 6.  The proposal of Joseph's steward, that the one with whom the cup was found should die (Genesis 44:
9), harmonized with the law punishing with death any theft from a palace. § 6.
 7.  The giving of a special portion by Jacob to his favourite son Joseph (Genesis 48:
22) was provided for by this code. § 165.
 8.  The cutting off of Reuben from his birthright (Genesis 49:
4) was the prescribed way of punishing his offence according to Khammurabi's law. § 158.
 9.  The inability of Abram to sell Hagar (Genesis 16:
6). § 119.

  The following is a list of thirty-four laws seen in force in Genesis, given by Jehovah, and subsequently confirmed in the Mosaic code:—
  The law of the sabbath (Genesis 2:
3). Exodus 16:23; 20:10; 31:13-17. Deuteronomy 5:14.
  The law of the place to worship (Genesis 3:
24; 4:3, 4, 16; 9:26, 27). Exodus 25:8. Deuteronomy 12:5-7. Leviticus 17:3, 4.
  The law of the acceptance of sacrifice by fire from heaven (Genesis 4:
4, 5). Compare strange fire, Exodus 30:9. Leviticus 6:9; 10:1.
  The law of sacrifices (Genesis 4:
4; 15:9; 22:2, 3, 13). Exodus 29:36. Leviticus 1:2-5.
  The law of clean and unclean (Genesis 7:
2; 8:20). Leviticus 11. Deuteronomy 14:3-20.
  The law of the altar (Genesis 8:
20; 12:7, 8; 13:4, 18; 22:9; 26:25). Exodus 20:24.
  The law of eating flesh (Genesis 9:
3). Deuteronomy 12:20.
  The law against eating blood (Genesis 9:
4). Leviticus 7:26; 17:10-14.
  The law against murder (Genesis 9:5, 6). Exodus 20:13. Deuteronomy 5:17.
  The law of parental authority (Genesis 9:
25; 18:19; 22; 37:13). Exodus 20:12. Leviticus 19:3. Deuteronomy 5:16.
  The law of monogamy (Genesis 12:
18; 16:1). Deuteronomy 24:1, 2.
  The law against adultery (Genesis 12:
18; 20:3, 9; 26:10, 11; 38; 39:9; 49:4). Leviticus 20:10.
  The law as to (1) priesthood (Genesis 14:
18). Exodus 28:1. (2) priestly garments (Genesis 27:15; 37:3). Exodus 28:4.
  The law of tithes (Genesis 14:
20; 28:22). Leviticus 27:30-32.
  The law as to covenant-making (Genesis 15:
10, 18; 21:27, 32). Exodus 34:27; 19:5.
  The law of intercession (Genesis 17; 18; 20:
17; 24).
  The law of righteousness (Genesis 17:
1). Deuteronomy 18:13.
  The law of circumcision (Genesis 17:
9, 10). Leviticus 12:3.
  The law of hospitality (Genesis 18). Leviticus 19:
33, 34. Deuteronomy 10:18, 19.
  The law against licentiousness (Genesis 18:
20). Leviticus 18.
  The law against fornication (Genesis 34:
7).
  The law as to oaths (Genesis 21:
23; 24:41; 26:28). Exodus 22:11. Numbers 5:19.
  The law of binding sacrifices (Genesis 22:
9). Psalm 118:27.
  The law of the birthright (Genesis 25:
33). Deuteronomy 21:16, 17.
  The law of anointing with oil (Genesis 28:
18; 31:13). Exodus 40:15.
  The obligation of vows (Genesis 28:
20-22; 31:13). Deuteronomy 23:21. Numbers 30:2.
  The law against idolatry (implied in the word "dominion", Genesis 1:
26; 31:32, 35). Exodus 20:3-6. Deuteronomy 5:7-10.
  The law of uncleanness (Genesis 31:
35). Leviticus 15.
  The law against marriage between circumcised and uncircumcised (Genesis 34:
14). Deuteronomy 7:3.
  The law of ceremonial cleansing for worship (Genesis 35:
2). Exodus 19:10.
  The law of drink offerings (Genesis 35:
14). Exodus 29:40. Leviticus 23:18.
  The law of marrying the brother's widow (Genesis 38:
8). Deuteronomy 25:5-10.
  The law of preaching (
2Peter 2:5). Leviticus 10:11. Deuteronomy 33:10.
  The law of dowry (Genesis 34:
12). Exodus 22:16.

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