"EVERLASTING", "ETERNAL", "FOR EVER", ETC.

This Is Appendix 151 From The Companion Bible.

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I.    In the Old Testament there are several words and expressions thus translated, the principal of which is
A.   'olam. This word is derived from 'alam (to hide), and means the hidden time or age, like aion (see below, II. A), by which word, or its Adjective aionios, it is generally rendered in the Septuagint. In Ezra 4, and Daniel 2-7, the Chaldee form 'alam is used. There are 448 passages where the word occurs.
i.   It is doubled, "from 'olam to 'olam", in 11 places, and is translated:—
1.   "for ever and ever" in 1Chronicles 16:36; 29:10. Nehemiah 9:5. Jeremiah 7:7; 25:5. Daniel 2:20; 7:-18.  7
2.   "from everlasting to everlasting" in Psalms 41:13; 90:2; 103:17; 106:48.   4
11
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ii.   It is used in the plural 11 times, and translated:—
1.   "for ever" in 1Kings 8:13. 2Chronicles 6:2. Psalms 61:4; 77:7.  4
2.   "everlasting" in Psalms 145:13 (see margin). Isaiah 26:4 (see margin); 45:17-. Daniel 9:24.  4
3.   "of ancient times or old time" in Psalms 77:5. Ecclesiastes 1:10.  2
4.   "of old" in Isaiah 51:9.   1
11
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iii.   It is rendered "for ever" in Genesis 3:22; 13:15. Exodus 3:15; 12:14, 17, 24; 14:13; 19:9; 21:6; 27:21; 28:43; 29:28; 30:21; 31:17; 32:13. Leviticus 6:18, 22; 7:34, 36; 10:9, 15; 16:29, 31; 17:7; 23:14, 21, 31, 41; 24:3; 25:46. Numbers 10:8; 15:15; 18:8, 11, 19, 19, 23; 19:10. Deuteronomy 5:29; 12:28; 13:16; 15:17; 23:3, 6; 28:46; 29:29; 32:40. Joshua 4:7; 8:28; 14:9. 1Samuel 1:22; 2:30; 3:13, 14; 13:13; 20:15, 23, 42; 27:12. 2Samuel 3:28; 7:13, 16, 16, 24, 25, 26, 29, 29. 1Kings 1:31; 2:33, 33, 45; 9:3, 5; 10:9. 2Kings 5:27; 21:7. 1Chronicles 15:2; 16:34, 41; 17:12, 14, 22, 23, 24, 27, 27; 22:10; 23:13, 13, 25; 28:4, 7, 8; 29:18. 2Chronicles 2:4; 5:13; 7:3, 6, 16; 9:8; 13:5; 20:7, 21; 30:8; 33:4, 7. Ezra 3:11; 9:12, 12. Nehemiah 2:3; 13:1. Job 41:4. Psalms 9:7; 12:7; 28:9; 29:10; 30:12; 33:11; 37:18, 28; 41:12; 44:8; 45:2; 48:8; 49:8, 11; 52:9; 61:7; 66:7; 72:17, 19; 73:26; 75:9; 78:69; 79:13; 81:15; 85:5; 89:1, 2, 4, 36, 37; 102:12; 103:9; 104:31; 105:8; 106:1; 107:1; 110:4; 111:9; 112:6; 117:2; 118:1, 2, 3, 4, 29; 119:89, 111, 152, 160; 125:1, 2; 131:3; 135:13; 136:1-26; 138:8; 146:6, 10. Proverbs 27:24. Ecclesiastes 1:4; 2:16; 3:14; 9:6. Isaiah 9:7; 32:14, 17; 34:10, 17; 40:8; 47:7; 51:6, 8; 57:16; 59:21; 60:21. Jeremiah 3:5, 12; 17:4, 25; 31:40; 33:11; 35:6; 49:33; 51:26, 62. Lamentations 3:31; 5:19. Ezekiel 37:25, 25; 43:7, 9. Daniel 2:4, 44; 3:9; 4:34; 5:10; 6:6, 21, 26; 7:18-; 12:7. Hosea 2:19. Joel 3:20. Obadiah 10. Jonah 2:6. Micah 2:9; 4:7. Zechariah 1:5. Malachi 1:4. 246
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iv.   In conjunction with 'ad (see below, B) it is rendered:—
1.   "for ever and ever" in Exodus 15:18. Psalms 9:5; 10:16; 21:4; 45:6, 17; 48:14; 52:8; 111:8; 119:44; 145:1, 2, 21; 148:6. Isaiah 30:8. Daniel 12:3. Micah 4:5. 17
2.   "for ever" in Psalm 104:5.   1
3.   "world without end" in Isaiah 45:-17   1
19
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v.   With a negative it is rendered "never" in Judges 2:1. 2Samuel 12:10. Psalms 15:5; 30:6; 31:1; 55:22; 71:1; 119:93. Proverbs 10:30. Isaiah 14:20; 25:2; 63:19. Ezekiel 26:21. Daniel 2:44. Joel 2:26, 27. 16
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vi.   Rendered "everlasting" in Genesis 9:16; 17:7, 8, 13, 19; 21:33; 48:4; 49:26. Exodus 40:15. Leviticus 16:34; 24:8. Numbers 25:13. Deuteronomy 33:27. 2Samuel 23:5. 1Chronicles 16:17. Psalms 24:7, 9; 93:2; 100:5; 105:10; 112:6; 119:142, 144; 139:24. Proverbs 8:23; 10:25. Isaiah 24:5; 33:14; 35:10; 40:28; 51:11; 54:8; 55:3, 13; 56:5; 60:19, 20; 61:7, 8; 63:12, 16. Jeremiah 10:10; 20:11; 23:40; 31:3; 32:40. Ezekiel 16:60; 37:26. Daniel 4:3, 34; 7:14, 27; 12:2, 2. Micah 5:2. Habakkuk 3:6. 56
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vii.   Rendered "perpetual" in Genesis 9:12. Exodus 29:9; 31:16. Leviticus 3:17; 24:9; 25:34. Numbers 19:21. Psalm 78:66. Jeremiah 5:22; 18:16; 23:40; 25:9, 12; 49:13; 50:5; 51:39, 57. Ezekiel 35:5, 9; 46:14. Habakkuk 3:6. Zephaniah 2:9. 22
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viii.   Rendered "for evermore" in 2Samuel 22:51. 1Chronicles 17:14. Psalms 18:50; 37:27; 86:12; 89:28, 52; 92:8; 106:31; 113:2; 115:18; 121:8; 133:3. Ezekiel 37:26, 28. 15
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ix.   Rendered "of old" or "ever of old" in Genesis 6:4. Deuteronomy 32:7. 1Samuel 27:8. Psalms 25:6; 119:52. Isaiah 46:9; 57:11; 63:9, 11. Jeremiah 28:8. Lamentations 3:6. Ezekiel 26:20. Amos 9:11. Micah 7:14. Malachi 3:4. 15
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x.   Rendered "old" or "ancient" in Ezra 4:15, 19. Job 22:15. Proverbs 22:28; 23:10. Isaiah 44:7; 58:12; 61:4. Jeremiah 5:15; 6:16; 18:15. Ezekiel 25:15; 36:2. 13
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xi.   Rendered "of" or "in old time" in Joshua 24:2. Jeremiah 2:20. Ezekiel 26:20.  3
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xii.   Rendered "alway" or "always" in Genesis 6:3. 1Chronicles 16:15. Job 7:16. Psalm 119:112. Jeremiah 20:17.  5
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xiii.   Rendered "ever" in Psalms 5:11; 111:5; 119:98. Joel 2:2.  4
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xiv.   Rendered "any more" in Ezekiel 27:36; 28:19; "long" in Psalm 143:3. Ecclesiastes 12:5; "world" in Psalm 73:12. Ecclesiastes 3:11; "continuance" in Isaiah 64:5; "eternal" in Isaiah 60:15; "lasting" in Deuteronomy 33:15; "long time" in Isaiah 42:14; "at any time" in Leviticus 25:32; and "since the beginning of the world" in Isaiah 64:4. 12
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Total 448
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B.   'ad from the verb 'adah (to pass on), as a Noun is used of time past or future. It is also a Preposition or Conjunction, meaning "until" (see Oxford Gesenius, pages 723, 4). The noun occurs 49 times, 19 of which occurrences are given above (A. iv). The remaining 30 are rendered:
i.   "for ever" in Numbers 24:20, 24. 1Chronicles 28:9. Job 19:24. Psalms 9:18; 19:9; 21:6; 22:26; 37:29; 61:8; 83:17; 89:29; 92:7; 111:3, 10; 112:3, 9; 132:14. Proverbs 12:19; 29:14. Isaiah 26:4; 64:9; 65:18. Micah 7:18. 24
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ii.   "everlasting" in Isaiah 9:6. Habakkuk 3:6.  2
iii.   "eternity" in Isaiah 57:15; "evermore" in Psalm 132:12; "of old" in Job 20:4; and "perpetually" in Amos 1:11.   4
30
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    Other words are:—
C.   nezach, which means "excellence" or "completeness", and is the word used in the subscription of 55 Psalms for "chief" in "chief Musician". It is rendered:—
i.   "for ever" in 2Samuel 2:26. Job 4:20; 14:20; 20:7; 23:7; 36:7. Psalms 13:1; 44:23; 49:9; 52:5; 68:16; 74:1, 10, 19; 77:8; 79:5; 89:46. Jeremiah 50:39. Lamentations 5:20. Amos 1:11. 20
ii.   "never" (with a negative) in Psalms 10:11; 49:19. Isaiah 13:20. Amos 8:7. Habakkuk 1:4.  5
iii.   alway(s) in Psalms 9:18; 103:9. Isaiah 57:16.  3
iv.   "perpetual" in Psalms 9:6; 74:3. Jeremiah 15:18.  3
v.   "ever" in Isaiah 28:28; 33:20; "Strength" in 1Samuel 15:29. Lamentations 3:18; "the end" in Job 34:36. Jeremiah 3:5; "victory" in 1Chronicles 29:11. Isaiah 25:8. "evermore" in Psalm 16:11; "constantly" in Proverbs 21:28, and "for ever and ever" in Isaiah 34:10. In this last passage it is doubled, lenezach nezahim = to completeness of completenesses. 11
42
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D.   kedem, from the verb kadam, to precede or prevent (2Samuel 22:6, etc.), means that which is before, of time or place; hence often translated the east (Genesis 3:24, etc.). It is always used of the past, and is rendered "ever" in Proverbs 8:23; "eternal" in Deuteronomy 33:27; "everlasting" in Habakkuk 1:12; "old" or "ancient" in Deuteronomy 33:15. 2Kings 19:25. Nehemiah 12:46. Psalms 44:1; 55:19; 68:33; 74:2, 12; 77:5, 11; 78:2; 119:152; 143:5. Isaiah 19:11; 23:7; 37:26; 45:21; 46:10; 51:9. Jeremiah 46:26. Lamentations 1:7; 2:17; 5:21. Micah 5:2; 7:20; and "past" in Job 29:2.
E.   zemithuth, from zamath (to cut), means "for cutting off". It occurs only in Leviticus 25:23 (see margin), 30, and is rendered "for ever".
F.   tamid = always, is rendered:—
"ever" in Leviticus 6:13. Psalms 25:15; 51:3; "evermore" in Psalm 105:4, and (with a negative) "never" in Isaiah 62:6.
G.   dor = generation, is translated (with a negative) "never" in Psalm 10:6, and "for evermore" in Psalm 77:8, where the margin in both cases gives "to generation and generation".
H.   yom = day, occurs nearly 2,500 times. The expression orek yamim, "length of days", is translated "for ever" in Psalms 23:6; 93:5. In both cases the margin gives "to length of days". Kal yamim, or kal hayyamim, "all days" or "all the days", is translated "for ever" in Genesis 43:9; 44:32. Deuteronomy 4:40; 18:5. Joshua 4:24. 1Samuel 2:32, 35; 28:2. 1Kings 11:39; 12:7. 2Chronicles 10:7; 21:7. Jeremiah 31:36; 32:39; 35:19; "ever" in Deuteronomy 19:9. 1Kings 5:1. Psalm 37:26; and "evermore" in Deuteronomy 28:29. 2Kings 17:37.
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  ¹ 'olam is plural here, as well as in No. ii.
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"EVERLASTING", "ETERNAL", "FOR EVER", ETC. (cont.).

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II.   In the New Testament the words rendered "for ever", etc., are the Noun aion, the Adjectives aionios, aidios, akatalutos, and aperantos; the Adverbs aei and pantote, and the adverbial phrase eis to dienekes.
A.   aion,  which means "age" (Appendix 129. 2),  is found 128 times in 105 passages,  in 23 of which it is doubled (see below, ii. 6, 9, 10). It occurs in its simple form 37 times, and with Prepositions 68 times.
i.   In its simple form it is rendered:—
1.   "age". Ephesians 2:7 (plural). Colossians 1:26 (plural).  2
2.   "course". Ephesians 2:2.   1
3.   "world". Matthew 12:32; 13:22, 39, 40, 49; 24:3; 28:20. Mark 4:19; 10:30. Luke 16:8; 18:30; 20:34, 35. Romans 12:2. 1Corinthians 1:20; 2:6, 6, 7 (plural), 8; 3:18; 10:11 (plural). 2Corinthians 4:4. Galatians 1:4. Ephesians 1:21; 6:12. 1Timothy 6:17. 2Timothy 4:10. Titus 2:12. Hebrews 1:2 (plural); 6:5; 9:26 (plural); 11:3 (plural). 32
4.   "eternal". Ephesians 3:11. 1Timothy 1:17 (literally "of the ages").   2
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ii.   In prepositional phrases:—
1.   ap' aionos [from (Appendix 104. iv) an (the) age], rendered "since the world began" in Luke 1:70. Acts 3:21; and "from the beginning of the world" in Acts 15:18.  3
2.   apo ton aionon [from (Appendix 104. iv) the ages], rendered "from the beginning of the world" in Ephesians 3:9.   1
3.   ek tou aionos [out of (Appendix 104. vii) the age], rendered "since the world began" in John 9:32.   1
4.   eis ton aiona [to (Appendix 104. vi) the age], rendered:—
a.   "for ever" in Matthew 21:19. Mark 11:14. Luke 1:55. John 6:51, 58; 8:35, 35; 12:34; 14:16. 2Corinthians 9:9. Hebrews 5:6; 6:20; 7:17, 21. 1Peter 1:23, 25. 2Peter 2:17 (no Article). 1John 2:17. 2John 2. Jude 13. 20
b.   "never" (with a negative) in Mark 3:29. John 4:14; 8:51, 52; 10:28; 11:26; 13:8.  7
c.   "ever" in Hebrews 7:24.   1
d.   "for evermore" in Hebrews 7:28.   1
e.   "while the world standeth" in 1Corinthians 8:13.   1
5.   eis hemeran aionos [to (Appendix 104. vi) day of an age], rendered "for ever" in 2Peter 3:18.   1
6.   eis ton aiona tou aionos [to (Appendix 104. vi) the age of the age], rendered "for ever and ever" in Hebrews 1:8.   1
7.   eis tous aionas [to (Appendix 104. vi) the ages], rendered:—
a.   "for ever" in Matthew 6:13. Luke 1:33. Romans 1:25; 9:5; 11:36; 16:27. Hebrews 13:8. 7
b.   "for evermore" in 2Corinthians 11:31.   1
8.   eis pantas tous aionas [to (Appendix 104. vi) all the ages], rendered "ever" in Jude 25.   1
9.   eis tous aionas ton aionon [to (Appendix 104. vi) to the ages of the ages], rendered:—
a.   "for ever and ever" in Galatians 1:5. Philippians 4:20. 1Timothy 1:17. 2Timothy 4:18. Hebrews 13:21. 1Peter 4:11; 5:11. Revelation 1:6; 4:9, 10; 5:13, 14; 7:12; 10:6; 11:15; 14:11 (no Articles); 15:7; 19:3; 20:10; 22:5. 20
b.   "for evermore" in Revelation 1:18.   1
10.   eis pasas tas geneas tou aionos ton aionon [to (Appendix 104. vi) all the generations of the age of the ages], rendered "throughout all ages, world without end" in Ephesians 3:21.   1
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Total 105
B.   aionios, of or belonging to an age, occurs 71 times, and is rendered:—
i.   "eternal" in Matthew 19:16; 25:46. Mark 3:29; 10:17, 30. Luke 10:25; 18:18. John 3:15; 4:36; 5:39; 6:54, 68; 10:28; 12:25; 17:2, 3. Acts 13:48. Romans 2:7; 5:21; 6:23. 2Corinthians 4:17, 18; 5:1. 1Timothy 6:12, 19. 2Timothy 2:10. Titus 1:2; 3:7. Hebrews 5:9; 6:2; 9:12, 14, 15. 1Peter 5:10. 1John 1:2; 2:25; 3:15; 5:11, 13, 20. Jude 7, 21. 42
ii.   "everlasting" in Matthew 18:8; 19:29; 25:41, 46. Luke 16:9; 18:30. John 3:16, 36; 4:14; 5:24; 6:27, 40, 47; 12:50. Acts 13:46. Romans 6:22; 16:26. Galatians 6:8. 2Thessalonians 1:9; 2:16. 1Timothy 1:16; 6:16. Hebrews 13:20. 2Peter 1:11. Revelation 14:6. 25
iii.   "for ever" in Philemon 15.   1
iv.   "Before or since the world began", in the phrases, chronois aioniois, or pro chronon aionion (in, or before age-times), strangely rendered in the Revised Version "through, or before times eternal", in Romans 16:25. 2Timothy 1:9. Titus 1:2.   3
71
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C.   aidios, said to be from aei (see F below), but perhaps from a not and idein to see, = unseen or hidden, occurs twice, and is rendered:—
i.   "eternal" in Romans 1:20.   1
ii.   "everlasting" in Jude 6.   1
2
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D.   akatalutos (indissoluble) occurs once, and is rendered "endless" in Hebrews 7:16.   1
E.   aperantos (interminable) occurs once, and is rendered "endless" in 1Timothy 1:4.   1
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F.   aei (always) occurs 8 times, and is rendered:—
i.   "ever" in Mark 15:8.   1
ii.   "alway" or "always" in Acts 7:51. 2Corinthians 4:11; 6:10. Titus 1:12. Hebrews 3:10. 1Peter 3:15. 2Peter 1:12.   7
8
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G.   pantote (always) occurs 42 times, and is rendered:—
i.   "alway" or "always" in Matthew 26:11, 11. Mark 14:7, 7. Luke 18:1. John 7:6; 8:29; 11:42; 12:8, 8; 18:20. Romans 1:9. 1Corinthians 1:4; 15:58. 2Corinthians 2:14; 4:10; 5:6; 9:8. Galatians 4:18. Ephesians 5:20. Philippians 1:4, 20; 2:12; 4:4. Colossians 1:3; 4:6, 12. 1Thessalonians 1:2; 2:16; 3:6. 2Thessalonians 1:3, 11; 2:13. Philemon 4. 34
ii.   "ever" in Luke 15:31. John 18:20. 1Thessalonians 4:17; 5:15. 2Timothy 3:7. Hebrews 7:25. 6
iii.   "evermore" in John 6:34. 1Thessalonians 5:16.   2
42
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H.   eis to dienekes [to (Appendix 104. vi) that which is continuous] occurs 4 times, rendered:—
i.   "continually" in Hebrews 7:3; 10:1. 2
ii.   "for ever" in Hebrews 10:12, 14.   2
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