(Acts 7:17, 18). (Being supplemental to Appendix 37.) This Is Appendix 188 From The Companion Bible.
Discoveries of late years have thrown
much light on ancient Egyptian life and history,
as touched upon in the Bible.
But so many unsolved problems and
remain as to the dynasties and individual kings,
that it is not yet possible to give any reliable
"table" such as that referred to in
we are now able to accept definite conclusions as
to the Pharaoh of the Exodus of whom Stephen spoke:
"The People grew and multiplied in Egypt,
till another king arose,
which knew not Joseph."
How this could be has
long been a difficulty with many,
but discoveries in Egypt have removed it.
If we read this passage accurately
in the original we notice that the word for
another is heteros,
which means another of a
and not allos,
which means another
of the same kind.¹
(See Appendix 124. 1 and 2.)
The word points,
therefore, to the fact that it was not
another king of the
but one of a different
and this agrees with
The Septuagint there uses
heteros for the Hebrew word
and aneste for the Hebrew word
which means to stand up and,
in some connections,
occupy the place of (or instead of)
¹ The force of these may be seen in Matthew 2:12: "another way" (allos). Matthew 4:21: "other two brethren" (allos). Galatians 1:6, 7: "a different (heteros) gospel, which is not another" (allos). Matthew 6:24 R.V: "hate the one and love the other" (heteros). Matthew 11:3: "do we look for another" (heteros). Hebrews 7:11: "another priest" (heteros).
(See the kindred Chaldee word in
2:31, 39, 44;
For the meaning of hadash see
"the crown being come into another family"
(Antiquities ii. 9. 1).
The discoveries now made
in Egypt prove that this was the case.
The mummy of this very Pharaoh is to
be seen to-day in the Museum at Bulak,
and it is clear that this Rameses
was the Pharaoh of the Oppression.¹
He was an Assyrian,
and every feature of his face is seen
to be quite different from the features
of the Pharaoh who preceded him.
Now we can comprehend
which has so puzzled the commentators,
who were unable to understand why the two oppressions,
in Egypt and by Assyria (centuries apart),
should be mentioned together
in the same sentence,
as though they were almost contemporary.
There was no oppression
(on the lines of Egypt)
The discoveries in Egypt thus
independently and entirely confirm the
perfect accuracy of the Divine words
in showing that this was so, for in
"Thus saith Adonai Jehovah,
My People went down aforetime into Egypt to sojourn there;
And the Assyrian oppressed them without cause."
Compare Jeremiah 50:17.
¹ While Meneptah, his son, was the Pharaoh of the Exodus.