There are some twenty-four Hebrew words,
more or less synonymous,
which are translated "offer" and
"offering" in the Hebrew Old Testament.
These Hebrew words are also translated in other ways,
so that it is important for the truth-seeker to know,
in every passage, which word is used.
The various words are noted in the margin,
except when they are clearly translated
by their distinctive meanings,
such as burnt-offering,
peace-offering, heave-offering, etc.
I. The VERB "to offer".
II. The NOUN "offering".
Karab means to draw near,
but in the Hiphil conjugation to make to approach,
or draw near: hence, to bring near.
See Korban, No. II. i. below.
Nagash = to come near,
after having been so brought,
that is to say,
to enjoy the presence which the Korban
(see below II. i.)
has secured. Compare Jeremiah
where we have both words.
Hence used of coming near with offerings.
Compare Greek engizo, Hebrews
and prosphero, Matthew
In the Epistle to the Hebrews it is used
twenty times in a sacrificial sense,
"God brings you near as sons".
See also Hebrews
Used also of the sinner's approach
to God by offering, Hebrews
'Asah, to make ready
a victim for sacrifice;
to make a victim a specific offering.
Hence, to offer.
First occurrence in Exodus
(sacrifice). Then Exodus
29:36, 38, 39
Zabach, to slay
[and offer up];
hence to offer what has been slain;
Hence No. xii. below.
Shahat, to kill
or slay (as a butcher);
used of men as well as of animals. Judges
First occurrence Genesis
'Alah = to offer up,
especially a burnt offering,
from its name in II. ii. below.
Katar = to burn
or turn into vapour.
Used of the incense which = Kethoreth,
but also of the 'Olah (II. ii)
and parts of the Minchah (II. iii.)
and the Zebach (II. xii.)
because these ascended to Jehovah.
Saraph is used of
burning up (or rather, down)
because nothing ascended up to God
in that offering.
Rum, to offer up as a heave-offering.
Korban a gift,
or an admittance-offering:
from I. i. above.
It is the present brought,
to this day in the East,
in order to secure an audience,
or to see the face of the superior,
and find access to his presence.
Hence called to-day,
When the admittance has been secured
and entrance has been obtained,
then the real offering or present has to be given.
Hence Korban is essentially an
securing the entree.
Compare the verb, Judges
Compare its use in New Testament, Matthew
'Olah = the burnt offering:
so called from the Hiphil of the verb 'alah,
to cause to ascend
[as the flame and smoke ascend by burning].
In Greek holocausta,
which conveys its meaning as being wholly burnt.
the Meal offering =
a present, assuch.
Hence a gift-offering,
not necessarily to secure admittance,
but to secure favour.
It might be sacrifice by blood,
or more generally and later,
It is used of the offerings of
Cain and Abel (Genesis
4:3, 4, 5),
of Jacob's present to Esau (Genesis
etc. In Exodus and Leviticus
it acquires a special limitation,
and is the only word rendered
or better (with Revised Version),
(though it has a wider signification than literal
Shelem = the Peace offering,
from the root Shalam,
which conveys the idea of peace on the ground
of perfection of compensation or recompense.
Hence connected with the thought of rendering
payment of vows or praises because of peace enjoyed.
Sometimes combined with Zebach (No. xii, below).
It is eucharistic rather than propitiatory.
Chattath = the Sin offering,
from chat'a to sin by coming short of,
by missing the mark in sins of commission.
In the Piel it means to
purge from such sin (Psalm
In the 'Olah (II. ii)
the blood went upward,
in the chattath it went
downward and outward
"without the camp".
The former was burnt up on the altar,
the latter went down on the ground.
'Asam = the Trespass offering.
Relates to sins of omission,
while chattath relates to sins of
commission = sin in general;
'Asham sin in relation to Mosaic Law;
sins of error arising from ignorance or negligence.
= Free-will or Voluntary offerings.
etc. It refers not to the nature
or mode of the offering,
but to the motive.
Not the same as Leviticus
which = "for his acceptance".
= the Heave offering.
So called because it was lifted
up on high in presentation
to Jehovah for Himself alone.
See I. ix.
above and Exodus
= the Wave offering,
because it was waved to and fro
(not up and down like No. viii),
and presented for the four quarters of the earth.
Nesek = the Drink offering.
to pour out.
any offering made by fire (compare Exodus
Zebach = any offering slain
(from No. II. iv, above).
The proper word for a victim,
slain and offered.
The Hebrew name for altar
(mizbeah) is derived from the same root,
and denotes the place of slaughter.
Compare Genesis 22.