There are many synonymous words to represent
the outworking of man's fallen nature.
As these are not always translated by the same English word,
it is necessary that we should distinguish them.
The student, by reference to the following list,
will be able to do so:—
chat'a, to sin;
to miss the mark (as in Judges
Also of the feet,
to stumble and fall (Proverbs
Hence, morally, a coming short,
blameworthiness-not necessarily wilful.
An act of thought, word, or deed, not a condition.
Usually (but by no means always) rendered sin,
and other words also so rendered.
to sin through error or ignorance.
'Asham is a breach of commandment,
done in ignorance,
but, when the guilt is proved,
specially connected with idolatry.
Used because an idol is nothing
and vanity (compare Hosea
margin). Hence, 'aven
comes to mean vanity (compare Job
etc.). The word has many renderings,
which are pointed out in the
passages when it occurs.
'Aven is rather a
course of bad conduct flowing
from the evil desires of fallen nature,
than breaches of the law as such.
from the root to be bent,
that is to say,
wrung out of course,
expresses it (compare
Sin viewed in the light of the trouble it causes;
and of its burden;
and its grievousness (Isaiah
Often rendered perverseness (Numbers
also mischief (Job
'aval, unjust, unfairness,
sin in its nature as deceitful,
dishonesty, that which is not equal and right,
unfairness in dealings.
Rendered unjust (Psalm
'abar, to pass beyond, transgress.
Hence, transgression (Psalm
ra'a', wicked, injurious.
From its root,
which indicates its nature as breaking up
all that is good or disirable;
injurious to all others.
In Greek poneros, evil,
or kakos, bad.
Hence especially of moral depravity and corruption,
Sin against lawful authority.
Often rendered transgression (Psalm
the action of love or mercy shown stands in strong
contrast to this character of the sin.
in the sense of the restless activity
of fallen nature (Job
where it refers to the activity
of the impious and ungodly,
unfaithfulness, breach of trust,
often rendered trespass and transgression.
It is used of Achan (Joshua
shagag, erring from imprudence,
rashness, being deceived, not wilfully;
erring wilfully through passion or wine,
hence, to go astray.
As sin it is to be distinguished
from presumptuous or high-handed sin.
etc., with Numbers
zimmah, meditated wickedness,
plotted, planned, and designed;
wicked, or lewd purpose,
especially of sins of unchastity.
chasad = shameful.
A Homonym, meaning (1) Here, and Job
(where it is rendered "mercy"
in Authorized Version and Revised Version).
But "lightning" is not "mercy",
(2) The other meaning is mercy,
lovingkindness, or grace.
See note on Leviticus
committed inadvertently through negligence.