MONEY AND COINS,
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.

This Is Appendix 51 From The Companion Bible.

I. MONEY AND COINS.

1.  Dram (Old Testament).
  (1.) 'Adarkon (Hebrew). (
1Chronicles 29:7. Ezra 8:27.)
  (2.) Dark
emon (the Persian Daric). (Ezra 2:69. Nehemiah 7:70, 71, 72.) A gold coin, value £1 2s. 0d., or $5.28.
2.  Farthing (New Testament).
  (1.) Kodrantes (Matthew 5:
26. Mark 12:42). A bronze coin, value ¾ of a farthing, or 3/8 of a cent.
  (2.) Assarion (Matthew 10:
29. Luke 12:6). A bronze coin, value about 3 farthings, or 1.5 cents.
3.  Mite (New Testament). (Mark 12:
42. Luke 12:59; 21:2.) Lepton, a copper coin, value 3/8 of a farthing, or 3/16 of a cent.
4.  Penny (New Testament), so rendered in fourteen of the sixteen occurrences of Denarion. A silver coin, value 8½d., or 17 cents. Generally plural, is twice rendered "pennyworth." (Mark 6:
37. John 6:7.)
5.  Piece of Money (Matthew 17:
27). Greek Stater, a silver coin, value 2s. 8d., or 64 cents.
6.  Piece of Silver. In Old Testament usually = a shekel of silver (see Weights), or may mean uncoined silver in
1Samuel 2:36. Psalm 68:30. Joshua 24:32. Job 42:11.
  In New Testament:—
  (1.) Argurion (Matthew 26:
15; 27:3, 5, 9. Acts 19:19). Value 2s. 8d., or 64 cents.
  (2.) Drachme (Luke 15:
8, 9). Compare 4, above. Value 8½d., or 17 cents.
7. Silver Piece. Greek Argurion (Matthew 27:
6). See 6. 1, above.
8. Tribute Money. (New Testament.) (Matthew 17:
24.)
  (1.) Didrachmon, a double Drachme, see 6. 2, above. A silver coin, value 1s. 4d., or 32 cents.
  (2.) Kensos (Matthew 22:
19). Latin census = a poll-tax.

II. WEIGHTS.

1. Bekah. Hebrew bek'a (Exodus 38:26) = half a shekel (see 5., below). Weight about 5 drams, Avoirdupois.
2. Gerah. Hebrew gerah (Exodus 30:
13. Leviticus 27:25. Numbers 3:47). Weight 1/20 of a shekel, or about ½ a dram, Avoirdupois.
3. Maneh. Hebrew maneh (Ezekiel 45:
12). See "Pound" (4, 1), below.
4. Pound.
  (1.) Maneh. Hebrew maneh (
1Kings 10:17. Ezra 2:69. Nehemiah 7:71, 72). Weight = 100 shekels (compare 1Kings 10:17 with 2Chronicles 9:16).
  (2.) Mna. Greek Latin mina (Luke 19:
13, 16, 16, 18, 18, 20, 24, 24, 25). Weight about 16 ozs., Avoirdupois.
  (3.) Litra. Greek Latin libra (John 12:
3; 19:39). Weight about 12 ozs., Avoirdupois.
5. Shekel. Hebrew shekel (Exodus 30:
13, and frequently). Weight about 10 drams, Avoirdupois.
  There is a shekel of the sanctuary (Exodus 30:
13), and the shekel of the king (2Samuel 14:26). Their precise relative weights unknown.
6. Talent (Exodus 25:
39, and frequently).
  (1.) Hebrew kikkar. Weight = 3,000 shekels of the sanctuary (Exodus 38:
25, 26).
  Talent of the king = 158 lb. Troy.
  Talent of gold = 131 lb. Troy.
    About £6,150; $29,085.
  Talent of silver = 117 lb. Troy.
  (2.) Greek talantos (in New Testament). About 114 lb. Avoirdupois.

III. MEASURES.

1. DISTANCE.
  (1.) Day's journey. About 30 English miles.
  (2.) Furlong. Greek stadios (Luke 24:
13. John 6:19; 11:18. Revelation 14:20; 21:16). About 202 English yards.
  (3.) Mile. Greek mileon (Matthew 5:
41). About 1,616 English yards.
  (4.) Pace. Hebrew za'ad (
2Samuel 6:13). Rather more than an English yard.
  (5.) Sabbath day's journey. About 2,000 English yards.

2. LENGTH.
  (1.) Cubit. Length still in dispute.
    (a) Hebrew 'ammah. Ranging between 21 to 25 inches.
    (b) Hebrew yomed (only in Judges 3:
16).
  (2.) Fathom. Greek orguia. The length of the arms outstretched = about six feet (Acts 27:
28).
  (3.) Reed. Hebrew kaneh (Ezekiel 40 and 41). About 6 cubits, or about 3½ English yards.
  (4.) Span. Hebrew zereth (Exodus 28:
16; 39:9. 1Samuel 17:4. Isaiah 40:12. Ezekiel 43:13). About half a cubit, or about 10½ inches.

3. CAPACITY.
  (1.) Bath. Hebrew bath (
1Kings 7:26, 38. 2Chronicles 2:10; 4:5. Ezra 7:22. Isaiah 5:10. Ezekiel 45:10, 11, 14). About 6 English gallons (liquid).
  (2.) Bushel. Greek modios (Matthew 5:
15. Mark 4:21. Luke 11:33). About 1 peck, English.
  (3.) Cab. Hebrew kab (
2Kings 6:25). About 1 quart, English dry measure.
  (4.) Cor. Hebrew kor (Ezekiel 45:14). About 8 bushels.
  (5.) Ephah. Hebrew 'ephah (Exodus 16:
36. Leviticus 5:11; 6:20; 19:36. Numbers 5:15; 28:5. Judges 6:19. Ruth 2:17. 1Samuel 1:24; 17:17. Isaiah 5:10. Ezekiel 45:10, 11, 13, 24; 46:5, 7, 11, 14. Amos 8:5. Zechariah 5:6, 8). About 3 pecks, English.
  (6.) Firkin. Greek metretes (John 2:
6). About 9 gallons, English liquid measure.
  (7.) Half homer. Hebrew letheh (Hosea 3:
2). About 4 bushels.
  (8.) Hin. Hebrew hin (Exodus 29:
40; 30:24. Leviticus 19:36; 23:13. Numbers 15:4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10; 28:5, 7, 14. Ezekiel 4:11; 45:24; 46:5, 7, 11, 14). About 1 gallon, liquid measure.
  (9.) Homer. Hebrew chomer (Leviticus 27:
16. Numbers 11:32. Isaiah 5:10. Ezekiel 45:11, 11, 11, 13, 13, 14, 14. Hosea 3:2) = 10 ephahs. Compare Number 12. See Number 5, above. About 8 bushels, English.
 (10.) Log. Hebrew log (Leviticus 14:
10, 12, 15, 21, 21). About 2/3 of a pint, liquid measure.
 (11.) Measure. The rendering of six Hebrew and four Greek words:
(1) 'eyphah (Deuteronomy 25:14, 15. Proverbs 20:10. Micah 6:10), measure. See Number 5, above.
(2) Cor. Hebrew kor (
1Kings 4:22; 5:11. 2Chronicles 2:10; 27:5. Ezra 7:22). See Number 4, above.
(3) Madad. Used of any hollow measure: of capacity as well as length = to mete out.
(4) Mesurah (Leviticus 19:
35. 1Chronicles 23:29. Ezekiel 4:11, 16). A measure of liquids.
(5) Se'ah (Genesis 18:
6. 1Samuel 25:18. 1Kings 18:32. 2Kings 7:1, 16, 18. Isaiah 27:8). About 1 peck.
(6) Shalish (Psalm 80:
5. Isaiah 40:12) = a third. Probably the third part of an ephah. See Number 5, above.
(7) Batos (Greek), same as Hebrew bath (Luke 16:
6). About 6 gallons (liquid).
(8) Koros (Greek), same as Hebrew cor (Luke 16:
7). See Number 4, above.
(9) Saton (Greek), same as Hebrew s
e'ah (Matthew 13:33. Luke 13:21.) See Number 7, above.
(10) Choenix (Greek) (Revelation 6:
6). An Attic dry measure: the daily allowance of corn for a slave, about 1 quart (dry).
 (12.) Omer. Hebrew 'omer (Exodus 16:16, 18, 22, 32, 33, 36). The 1/10 of ephah. Compare Ezekiel 45:11.
 (13.) Tenth deal. Hebrew 'isaron (Exodus 16:
36; 29:40. Leviticus 14:10, 21; 23:13, 17; 24:5. Numbers 15:4, 6, 9; 28:9, 13, 20, 28; 29:3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15). About ½ a gallon (dry).

4. TIME.
  (1.) Beginning of the Watches (Lamentations 2:
19). About 9 p.m.
  (2.) Cock-crowing (Mark 13:
35). There were two: one after midnight, and one before dawn. Both are mentioned in Mark 14:30. The latter was "THE" cock-crowing.
  (3.) Cool of the Day (Genesis 3:
8). From about 2 to about 6 p.m.
  (4.) Day. Reckoned from sunset to sunset.
  (5.) Eleventh Hour (Matthew 20:
6, 9). About 5 p.m.
  (6.) Fourth Watch (Matthew 14:
25). From about 3 a.m. till about 6 a.m.
  (7.) Heat of the Day (Genesis 18:
1). From about 10 a.m. till 2 p.m.
  (8.) Middle Watch (Judges 7:
19). From about midnight till about 3 a.m.
  (9.) Morning Watch (Exodus 14:
24). From about 3 a.m. till 6 a.m.
 (10.) Night. The natural night was from sunset to sunrise.
 (11.) Ninth hour (Matthew 20:
5; 27:45, 46. Mark 15:33, 34. Luke 23:44. Acts 3:1; 10:3, 30). About 3 p.m.
 (12.) Second Watch (Luke 12:
38). About 9 to 12 p.m.
 (13.) Seventh hour (John 4:
52). About 1 p.m.
 (14.) Sixth hour (Matthew 20:
5; 27:45. Mark 15:33. Luke 1:26, 36; 23:44. John 4:6; 19:14. Acts 10:9). About 12 midday.
 (15.) Tenth hour (John 1:
39). About 4 p.m.
 (16.) Third hour (Matthew 20:
3. Mark 15:25. Acts 2:15; 23:23). About 9 a.m.
 (17.) Third Watch (Luke 12:
38). From about midnight till about 3 a.m.
 (18.) Watch. Three hours.

Old Testament.

          First Watch, 9 p.m. till midnight.
          Middle Watch, midnight till 3 a.m.
          Morning Watch, 3 a.m. till 6 a.m.

New Testament.

          First Watch, 6 p.m. to 9 p.m.
          Second Watch, 9 p.m. to midnight.
          Third Watch, midnight to 3 a.m.
          Fourth Watch, 3 a.m. to 6 a.m.

5. THE JEWISH MONTHS.
N.B. The Civil months are six months later than the Sacred months.

SACRED
MONTH.
NAME
OF
MONTH.
CORRESPONDING
ENGLISH
MONTH.
FESTIVAL  OF  MONTH.
I.

II.
III.


IV.
V.
VI.
VII.



VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
Abib, or Nisan.

Zif.
Sivan.


Thammuz.
Ab.
Elul.
Tisri, or Ethanim.



Bul.
Chisleu.
Tebeth.
Shebat.
Adar.
April.

May.
June.


July.
August.
September.
October.



November.
December.
January.
February.
March.
14th day. The Passover.
16th day. Firstfruits of Barley Harvest presented.
14th day. Second Passover, for those who could not keep the first.
  6th day. Pentecost, or Feast of Weeks.
                  Firstfruits of Wheat harvest, and Firstfruits of all the
                  ground.



  1st day. Feast of Trumpets.
10th day. Day of Atonement.
15th day. Feast of Tabernacles.
                  Firstfruits of Wine and Oil.

25th day. Feast of Dedication.


14th and 15th days. Feast of Purim.

ABBREVIATION
 N.B.  =  (Latin  nota bene)  note well.

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