The first occurrence
of the name "Jerusalem",
as a city,¹ is in
and confirms the fact that the
first occurrence contains an
epitome of its subsequent history.
The history of the city
has been a record of its sieges.
No fewer than twenty-seven
go to complete the list.
This number is striking
in the light of
Appendix No. 10;
being composed of 3×9,
the factors being those of
Divine completeness (3),
and judgment (9) respectively
A cycle of ordinal completeness is
marked by the 10th and 20th (2×10) sieges.
These were the two characterized by
the destruction of the Temple by fire,
which is in accord with the number 10,
being that of ordinal perfection.
Both also were foretold:
the former by Jeremiah and Ezekiel;
the latter by our Lord.
Seven is the number
of spiritual perfection,
and it is worthy of note that the 7th,
and 21st (3×7)
sieges were each the subject of
a 28th (4×7) siege,
is foretold in Zechariah
While 14 (2×7) of the
sieges are recorded in Holy Scripture,
13 are recorded in profane history.
The following is a
complete list of the sieges:
By the tribe of Judah
against the Jebusites,
This was some 700 years
before Rome was founded.
It was only partial,
for in David's reign we
still find the Jebusites
occupying the citadel
(the future Zion).
The solemn words in
describing this first siege,
vividly portray the after
history of the city.
By David against the Jebusites
By Shishak king of Egypt,
To this there was only a feeble resistance;
and the Temple was plundered.
By the Philistines,
In this siege the royal palace was sacked,
and the Temple again plundered.
By Jehoash king of Israel,
against Amaziah king of Judah
The wall was partially broken down,
and the city and Temple pillaged.
By Rezin king of Syria,
and Pekah king of Israel,
28), about 630
The city held out,
but Ahaz sought the aid of
Tiglath-Pileser king of Assyria,
for whom he stripped the Temple.
By Sennacherib king of Assyria,
In this case the siege was raised
by a Divine interposition,
as foretold by Isaiah the prophet.
By Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon,
when the Temple was partly pillaged.
By Nebuchadnezzar again,
when the pillage of the
Temple was carried further,
and 10,000 people carried away.
In this case the Temple was burnt with fire,
and the city and the Temple lay
desolate for fifty years.
king of Jerusalem
had been mentioned in
etc., but not the city as such.
There will be a 28th
according to Zechariah 14,
which will be raised by Messiah,
even as the 7th was by Jehovah.
By Ptolemy Soter king of Egypt,
against the Jews, 320
More that 100,000 captives were taken to Egypt.
By Antiochus the Great,
a general of Alexander,
who left a garrison.
By Antiochus IV,
surnamed Epiphanes, 168
This was the worst siege since the 10th.
The whole city was pillaged;
10,000 captives taken;
the walls destroyed;
the altar defiled;
ancient manuscripts perished;
the finest buildings were burned;
and the Jews were forbidden to worship there.
Foretold Daniel 11.
By Antiochus V,
against Judas Maccabaeus,
This time honorable terms were made,
and certain privileges were secured.
By Antiochus VII,
surnamed Sidetes king of Syria,
against John Hyrcanus,
(son of Alex. Jannaeus)
and the priest Aristobulus.
The siege was raised by Scaurus,
one of Pompey's lieutenants,
By Pompey against Aristobulus,
The machines were moved on the Sabbath,
when the Jews made no resistance.
Only thus was it then reduced;
12,000 Jews were slain.
son of Aristobulus,
with a Parthian army,
took the city in 40
but there was no siege,
the city was taken by a
Herod with a Roman army
besieged the city in 39
for five months.
Appendix 50. VI.).
The second Temple (Herod's) was burnt,
and for fifty years the city
disappeared from history,
as after the 10th siege
The Romans had again to besiege the city in
135 against the false Messiah,
who had acquired possession of the ruins.
The city was obliterated,
and renamed Ælia Capitolina,
and a temple was erected to Jupiter.
For 200 years the city passed out of history,
no Jews being permitted to approach it.
This siege was foretold in
After 400 years of
so-called Christian colonization,
Chosroes the Persian (about
559) swept through the country;
thousands were massacred,
and the Church of the
Holy Sepulcher was destroyed.
The Emperor Heraclius afterwards defeated him,
and restored the city and the church.
The Caliph Omar, in
besieged the city against Heraclius.
It was followed by capitulation on favorable terms,
and the city passed into the hands of the Turks,
in whose hands it remains to the present day.
the Vizier of the Caliph of Egypt,
besieged the two rival factions of Moslems,
and pillaged the city in 1098.
In 1099 it was besieged by
the army of the first Crusade.
In 1187 it was besieged by
Saladin for seven weeks.
The wild Kharezmian Tartar hordes,
captured and plundered the city,
slaughtering the monks and priests.