THE USAGE OF RUACH, SPIRIT.

This Is Appendix 9 From The Companion Bible.

  The word ruach occurs 389 times in the Hebrew Old Testament.

  In the Authorized Version it is rendered spirit in 237 passages (and no other word is rendered spirit except neshamah, "breath", in Job 26:4 and Proverbs 20:27. See Appendix 16). In the remaining 152 places it is translated in 22 different ways, which are to be carefully distinguished.

  [In the Revised Version ruach is rendered spirit 224 times, and in the remaining 165 passages is rendered in many different ways.]

  The meaning of the word is to be deduced only from its usage. The one root idea running through all the passages is invisible force. As this force may be exerted in varying forms, and may be manifested in divers ways, so various renderings are necessitated, corresponding thereto.

  Ruach, in whatever sense it is used, always represents that which is invisible except by its manifestations. These are seen both externally to man, as well as internally within man.

  As coming from God, it is the invisible origin of life. All apart from this is death. It comes from God, and returns to God (Ecclesiastes 3:19, 20). Hence, ruach is used of

  I.—GOD, as being invisible. "The Spirit of Jehovah" is Jehovah Himself, in His manifestation of invisible power.
  
2Samuel 23:2. Psalm 139:7 (= Thee). Isaiah 40:13.

  II.—THE HOLY SPIRIT: the Third Person of the Trinity.
  
2Samuel 23:2. 1Kings 18:12; 22:24. 2Kings 2:16. 2Chronicles 18:23. Nehemiah 9:20, 30. Job 26:13; 33:4. Isaiah 40:13; 48:16; 59:19, 21; 61:1; 63:10, 1-4. Ezekiel 3:12, 14 (1st); 8:3; 11:1, 24; 37:1; 43:5. Micah 2:7; 3:8. Zechariah 4:6; 6:8; 7:12. Malachi 2:15.

  III.—INVISIBLE DIVINE POWER MANIFESTING ITSELF
  In creation. Genesis 1:
2.
  In giving life. Ezekiel 37:
14.
  In executing judgement—
    "blast." Exodus 15:
8. Isaiah 37:7.
    "breath."
2Samuel 22:16. 2Kings 19:7. Job 4:9;
      15:
30. Psalms 18:15; 33:6. Isaiah 11:4; 30:28.
    "spirit." Isaiah 4:
4; 28:6; 34:16; 40:7.

  IV.—INVISIBLE "POWER FROM ON HIGH", MANIFESTING ITSELF AS DIVINE POWER in giving spiritual gifts. Spoken of as coming upon, clothing, falling on, and being poured out. Rendered "Spirit", but should be "spirit".
  Genesis 41:
38. Exodus 28:3; 31:3; 35:31. Numbers 11:17, 25, 25, 26, 29; 24:2; 27:8. Deuteronomy 34:9. Judges 3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6, 19; 15:14. 1Samuel 10:6, 10; 11:6; 16:13, 14; 19:20, 23. 2Kings 2:9, 15. 1Chronicles 12:18; 28:12. 2Chronicles 15:1; 20:14; 24:20. Psalms 51:11, 12; 143:10. Proverbs 1:23. Isaiah 11:2, 2, 2, 2; 30:1; 32:15; 42:1, 5; 44:3; 59:21; 61:1; 63:11. Ezekiel 2:2; 3:24; 11:5, 19; 36:27; 39:29. Daniel 4:8, 9, 18; 5:11, 12, 14. Joel 2:28, 29. Haggai 2:5. Zechariah 12:10.
  V.—THE INVISIBLE PART OF MAN (Psychological). Given by God at man's formation at birth, and returning to God at his death.
  "Breath." Genesis 6:
17; 7:15, 22. Job 9:18; 12:10; 17:1. Psalms 104:29; 135:17; 146:4. Ecclesiastes 3:19. Jeremiah 10:14; 51:17. Lamentations 4:20. Ezekiel 37:5, 6, 8, 9, 10. Habakkuk 2:19. Zechariah 12:1.
  "spirit." Genesis 6:
3. Numbers 16:22; 27:16. Job 27:3; 34:14. Psalms 31:5; 104:30. Ecclesiastes 3:21, 21; 8:8, 8; 11:5; 12:7. Isaiah 42:5.
  "Wind." Ezekiel 37:
9, 9.

  VI.—THE INVISIBLE CHARACTERISTICS OF MAN; manifesting themselves in states of mind and feeling (by the Figure of Speech, Metonymy. See Appendix 6).
  "Mind." Genesis 26:
35. Proverbs 29:11. Ezekiel 11:5; 20:32. Daniel 5:20. Habakkuk 1:11.
  "Breath." Job 19:
17 (= manner).
  "Courage." Joshua 2:
11.
  "Anger." Judges 8:
3.
  "Blast." Isaiah 25:
4.
  "Spirit." Genesis 41:
8; 45:27. Exodus 6:9; 35:21. Num. 5:14, 14, 30; 14:24. Joshua 5:1. Judges 15:19. 1Samuel 1:15; 30:12. 1Kings 10:5; 21:5. 1Chronicles 5:26, 26. 2Chronicles 9:4; 21:16; 36:22. Ezra 1:1, 5. Job 6:4; 7:11; 10:12; 15:13; 20:3; 21:4; 32:8, 18. Psalms 32:2; 34:18; 51:10, 11, 12, 17. 76:12; 78:8; 142:3; 143:4, 7. Proverbs 11:13; 14:29; 15:4, 13; 16:2, 18, 19, 32; 17:22, 27; 18:14, 14; 25:28; 29:23. Ecclesiastes 1:14, 17; 2:11, 17, 26; 4:4, 6, 16; 6:9; 7:8, 8, 9; 10:4. Isaiah 19:3, 14; 26:9; 29:10, 24; 33:11; 38:16; 54:6; 57:15, 15, 16; 61:3; 65:14; 66:2. Jeremiah 51:11. Ezekiel 13:3. Daniel 7:15. Hosea 4:12; 5:4. Micah 2:11. (by Hendiadys (Appendix 6), for a false or lying spirit).

  VII.—Put by the Figure of Speech, Synecdoche for THE WHOLE PERSON (see Appendix 6).
  Psalms 77:
3, 6; 106:33. Ezekiel 21:7. Daniel 2:1, 3. Malachi 2:15, 16.

  VIII.—INVISIBLE SPIRIT-BEINGS.
  "Angels." Psalm 104:
4.
  "Cherubim." Ezekiel 1:
12, 20, 20, 20, 21; 10:17.
  Neutral spirit-beings. Job 4:
15. Isaiah 31:3.
  Evil angels. Judges 9:
23. 1Samuel 16:14, 15, 16, 23, 23; 18:10; 19:9. 1Kings 22:21, 22, 23. 2Chronicles 18:20, 21, 22. Zechariah 13:2.

  IX.—THE INVISIBLE MANIFESTATIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE.
  Temperature. Genesis 3:
8 ("cool").
  Air.
  "Wind" or "winds" in every place where
    the words "wind" or "winds" occur.
  "Whirlwind." Ezekiel 1:
4.
  "Windy." Psalm 55:
8.
  "Spirits." Zechariah 6:
5.
  "Air." Job 41:
16.
  "Tempest." Psalm 11:
6.
  "Blast." Exodus 15:
8. 2Kings 19:7. Isaiah 25:4; 37:7.
  "Quarters" (of the four winds).
1Chronicles 9:24.
  "Side" or "sides" (of the four winds). Jeremiah 52:
23.
    Ezekiel 42:
16, 17, 18, 19, 20.

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