Appendix 128 To The Companion Bible.

I.  SIN.

i.  The Verb.
   hamartano = to miss the mark or aim; then, to miss or wander from the right path; to go, or do, wrong.

ii.  The Noun.
 1.  hamartia = a failing to hit the mark; aberration from prescribed law (connected with and resulting from the above). In New Testament always in a moral sense = a sin, whether by omission or commission, in thought, word, or deed. Also used in connection with the sin-offering (Hebrews 10:
6, 8, 18; 13:11, as in Psalm 40:6, compare Leviticus 5:8).
 2.  hamartema = the actual sin. The evil principle in action; the sinful act or deed.
 3.  paraptoma = a falling aside, when one should have stood upright. Hence (morally) a fall, a falling aside from truth and equity; a fault, or trespass.

 In Romans 5:12, No. 1 entered the world. The disobedience of Adam (verses 15, 17, 18) was No. 3, and the law entered that No. 3 which before was error, might become criminal in the knowledge of the sinner. After this, where No. 1 abounded, grace did much more abound.


 1.  poneria = depravity; iniquity, the wicked acting of the evil nature. See No. III. 1 below.
 2.  kakia = depravity, the vicious disposition and desires, rather than the active exercise of them, which is No. 1 (poneria).

III.  EVIL (Adjective and Noun).

 1.  poneros = full of labors and pains in working mischief; evil intent (Matthew 12:39. Luke 11:29); grudging, in connection with the idea expressed in the "evil eye" (Matthew 6:23; 20:15. See the context, and compare Luke 11:13).
 2.  kakos = depraved, bad in nature. Compare No. II. 2.
 3.  anomos = lawless, contempt of law.
 4.  anomia = lawlessness.
 5.  athesmos = breaking through all restraints of ordinances or institutes, divine or human, to gratify one's lusts. Occurs only in 2Peter 2:7; 3:17.


      asebeia = impiety, absence of "the fear of God", having no reverence for sacred things; irreligious. Septuagint for pasha'. Appendix 44. ix.


 1.  apeitheia = unwillingness to be persuaded, leading to obstinacy.
 2.  parakoe = unwillingness to hear, disobedient.


 1.  parabaino = to step on one side, overstep, go aside from, violate, transgress.
 2.  parerchomai = to go past, pass by, neglect.
 3.  parabates,  one who steps aside, or oversteps.


 1.  adikia = unrighteousness, wrongdoing.
 2.  adikema = a wrong done.
 3.  paranomia = acting  contrary  to  law  or  custom. Occurs only in
2Peter 2:16.


 1.  planao = to cause to wander or go astray; used of doctrinal error and religious deceit. Compare planos (1Timothy 4:1, "seducing").
 2.  apoplanao. No. 1 with apo = away from, prefixed (Appendix 104. iv). In Passive, to go astray from, swerve. Occurs only in Mark 13:
22 and 1Timothy 6:10.
 3.  astocheo = to deviate from. Occurs only in
1Timothy 1:6; 6:21. 2Timothy 2:18.


    hettema = a diminishing of that which should have been rendered in full measure; diminution, decrease. Occurs in Romans 11:12 and 1Corinthians 6:7.

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