|THE SYNONYMOUS WORDS FOR "SEE", "LOOK", "BEHOLD", ETC. Appendix 133 To The Companion Bible.|
The following twenty-three words are to be thus distinguished and understood:—
I. SEE.1. eidon = to see: implying not the mere act of looking, but the actual perception of the object: thus differing from blepo (No. 5, below). 2. idou is the Imperative Aorist Middle of eidon (see No. 1, above) = See! Behold! calling attention to something external to one's self. 3. ide is the Imperative Active of the Second Aorist eidon (No. 1, above), as calling attention to something present. 4. oida = to know intuitively, without effort or experience; to have perceived or apprehended. Compare the verb ginosko, which means to get to know, by effort, experience, or revelation. See the two verbs in the same verse (John 8:55; 13:7. 1John 5:20), and Appendix 132. I. 1. 5. blepo = to have the power of seeing, to use the eyes, to look at; used of the act of looking, even though nothing be seen. Hence, to observe accurately and with desire; used of mental vision, and implying more contemplation than horao (See No. 8, below). 6. anablepo. This is blepo (No. 5, above), with the Preposition ana prefixed (see Appendix 104. i) = to look up (for example Mark 8:24), to look again; hence, to recover sight (for example Matthew 11:5). 7. emblepo = to look in or into, fix the eyes upon, or look intently. It is blepo (No. 5, above) with the Preposition en (Appendix 104. viii) prefixed, and denotes a looking or regarding fixedly. Hence, to know by inspection (for example Matthew 19:26. Mark 8:25. Acts 22:11). 8. horao = to perceive with the eyes. It is used of bodily sight, and with special reference to the thought as to the object looked at. It thus differs from No. 5, above, in the same way as No. 1 does, and from No. 1 in that it has regard to the object, while No. 1 refers to the subject.
(a) opsomai is used as the Future of horao (No. 8, above), and has regard to the object presented to the eye, and to the subject which perceives, at the same time. It denotes, not so much the act of seeing (like Nos. 5 and 8, above), but the state and condition of the one to whose eye the object is presented. Hence, to truly comprehend.9. aphorao = to look away from others at one who is regarded earnestly (for example Hebrews 12:2, where alone it occurs). It is No. 8, with apo (Appendix 104. iv) prefixed.
10. optanomai = to behold, and in Passive, to appear or be seen. It is a rare form of the Present, formed from No. 8, as above. Occurs only in Acts 1:3. 11. theoreo = to be a spectator of, to gaze at, or on, as a spectacle. Our English word "theatre" is from the same root. Hence, it is used of bodily sight, and assumes the actual presence of the object on which the gaze is fixed, and that it is a continued and prolonged gaze. It differs from No. 8, above, as that may be only the act of an instant. 12. theaomai is, in meaning, like No. 11, above, but differing from it in that No. 11 has regard to the object gazed upon, while this has regard to the subject who gazes. Hence, it is used of gazing with a purpose; to see with desire, or regard with admiration. 13. historeo = to inquire: that is to say, to have an interview with a person with a view to becoming personally acquainted through conversation. Occurs only in Galatians 1:18.
II. BEHOLD.1. epeidon. This is No. I. 1, with epi = upon (Appendix 104. ix) prefixed; to look upon. It is the second Aorist of ephorao (No. I. 8), with epi = upon (Appendix 104. ix) prefixed. It occurs only in Luke 1:25 and Acts 4:29.
2. epopteuo = to look over, overlook, watch, and thus be an eyewitness of. Occurs only in 1Peter 2:12; 3:2. It is derived from No. I. 8, above, with epi (Appendix 104. ix) prefixed.
3. anatheoreo. It is No. I. 11, with ana (Appendix 104. i) prefixed. Hence it = to gaze on with purpose and attention. Occurs only in Acts 17:23; and Hebrews 13:7.
4. katanoeo = to perceive with the senses, referring to the object of observation rather than to the act of getting to know (as with ginosko, Appendix 132. I. ii). It has regard to the conscious action of the mind in getting to see or understand.
III. LOOK.1. anablepo. See No. I. 6, above.
2. parakupto = to stoop down beside (para. Appendix 104. xii) anything in order to look at it more closely.
3. prosdokao = to watch for (pros. Appendix 104. xv) anything, expect and thus look or wait for.
4. epiblepo. This is No. I. 5, above, with epi = upon (Appendix 104. ix) prefixed.
5. episkeptomai = to look upon (Appendix 104. ix), as though to select; to look out, so as to select.
6. atenizo = to fix the eyes intently upon.