Appendix 170 To The Companion Bible.

  There are three principal words translated "LIFE". Their shades of meaning are to be distinguished as follows:—

 1.  zoe = life in all its manifestations; from the life of God down to the lowest vegetable. It is life in activity, and thus especially is the opposite of death. It involves resurrection life and eternal life; and hence, as such, is the "gift of God" (Romans 6:23. 1John 5:12). For the same reason its verb zao is frequently used of, and put for, resurrection life (Matthew 9:18. Mark 16:11. Luke 24:5, 23. John 11:25, 26. Acts 1:3; 9:41; 25:19. Romans 6:10; 14:9. 2Corinthians 13:4. Revelation 1:18; 2:8; 13:14; 20:4, 5).

 2.  bios = life, as lived, manner of life; life as led, etc.; zoe being life as one experiences it; bios as others see it.
This is used therefore, only of mankind, who not only live but lead lives. Hence the difference between ZO-ology and BIO-graphy. Zoe is life in its principle; bios is life in its manifestations (Luke 8:14). Bios is also put by Figure of Speech, Metonymy (of Adjunct), Ap. 6, for livelihood, or that which supports animal life (Luke 8:43). It occurs eleven times (Mark 12:44. Luke 8:14, 43; 15:12, 30; 21:4. 1Tim. 2:2. 2Tim. 2:4. 1Pet. 4:3. 1John 2:16; 3:17).

 3.  psuche = the breath of animal life; one of the manifestations of zoe, common to all living animals. In one passage (Isa. 10:18, the Hebrew nephesh (Appendix 13), Greek psuche) is applied to vegetable life. It is used of the living individual as such. For its various renderings and usages, see Appendix 110.

Appendix Index

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