|APOSTLES: ELDERS: PROPHETS. Appendix 189 To The Companion Bible.|
1. APOSTLES. In the Gospels the word apostolos (singular and plural) occurs only nine times as compared with sixty-nine in Acts and the Epistles, and three in Revelation. In Matthew, Mark, Luke, and Acts (except 14:4, 14) the term is used of the Twelve chosen and commissioned by the Lord (Matthew 11:1; Luke 6:13) during His earthly ministry. From this office Judas fell, his place being filled later by Matthias (Acts 1:26). In the Epistles and Revelation the context shows where the Twelve are meant.
The one occurrence in John's Gospel is in 13:16, where it is used in the general sense of one sent forth (on some special message or errand). He Who is called the Apostle (Hebrews 3:1) is so constantly presented in that Gospel as the One sent of the Father (see notes on John 14:24; 17:3) that other messengers are lost sight of.
Besides the Twelve there were others appointed by the Lord after His Ascension (Ephesians 4:11. Compare 1Corinthians 12:28). Such were Paul and Barnabas, first called so in Acts 14:4, 14; Andronicus and Junias (Romans 16:7). Paul nineteen times calls himself an apostle, and argues his claim in 1Corinthians 9 and 2Corinthians 12. See also 1Thessalonians 1:1; 2:6, where Paul associates Silvanus and Timothy with himself. Twice the word apostolos (besides John 13:16 referred to above) is translated "messenger", in 2Corinthians 8:23. Philippians 2:25. See notes there. 2. ELDERS. "Elders" is frequently met with in the O.T. as indicating an official position, for example, elders of the tribes, elders of the cities, elders of Midian, etc.
In the Gospels and Acts the term generally refers to the Sanhedrin. The name seems to have been taken over into the Christian Church to describe the members of the Council at Jerusalem other than the apostles (Acts 11:30; 15:2-23), and then similar officers were appointed in local churches (Acts 14:23; 20:17. Titus 1:5). That these were identical with the "overseers" of Acts 20:28 (Greek episkopoi, rendered "bishop" in Philippians 1:1. 1Timothy 3:2. Titus 1:7. 1Peter 2:25) is clear from comparison with Acts 20:17. 1Timothy 5:17. Titus 1:5, 7. 1Peter 5:1, 2 (see notes). There were thus "business" elders and "preaching" elders. Peter and John both call themselves elders (1Peter 5:1. 2John 1. 3John 1). 3. PROPHETS. A prophet was one who spoke for God (see Appendix 49), and this applies to those of the New Testament as well as those of the Old. It did not necessarily mean that he foretold the future, though sometimes that was done, as in the case of Agabus (Acts 11:28; 21:10). Prophecy was one of the gifts of the Spirit, and its chief design was to comfort, exhort (Acts 15:32), and testify from the Scriptures for the edification of believers. Prophets are included in the gifts of 1Corinthians 12:28. Ephesians 4:11, and directions for the orderly exercise of their gifts are given in 1Corinthians 14. Besides Acts 13:1, where it is impossible to distinguish between the five persons mentioned as prophets and teachers (two of them being called apostles also in the next chapter),—Judas and Silas also are called prophets in 15:32.