Appendix 197 To The Companion Bible.

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The King and the kingdom,¹ in promise and prophecy (the Old Testament):


The King presented, proclaimed, and rejected (the four Gospels):


Transitional. The kingdom again offered and rejected (Acts and the earlier Epistles. See Appendix 180 and 181):


The King exalted and made Head over all things to "the church which is His body". The "mystery" (the later Pauline Epistles. See Appendix 193). The kingdom in abeyance (Hebrews 2:8).


The King and the kingdom unveiled. The King enthroned. The kingdom set up. Promise and prophecy fulfilled (The Revelation).

  ¹ For further details, see Appendix 95. II and Appendix 198.

 1.  The Lord Jesus Christ is the one great Subject of the Word of God (compare Luke 24:27; John 5:39), being the promised "Seed" of the woman (Genesis 3:15). He is therefore the Master-key to the Divine revelation of the Word. The whole Bible is about Him directly or indirectly, and as everything centers in and around Him, apart from Him it cannot be understood.
  This is set forth in the foregoing Structure, from which we see that Genesis and Revelation, "the first" and "the last" books of the Bible, are inseparably linked together. Genesis is "the beginning" and Revelation the ending of the written Word, even as the Lord, the Incarnate Word, spake of Himself (compare 21:6; 22:13). Revelation is the complement of Genesis. Either without the other would be unintelligible. Genesis 1—2 finds its correspondence in Revelation 21—22 (see Appendix 198).
  Without the first chapters of Genesis, Revelation would be an insoluble riddle, as indeed it is to those who treat the record of "the Creation" and the "Fall" as "myths" (See 2Timothy 4:4). Without the last chapters of the Revelation "the Book" would be a hopeless and heart-breaking record of the failure and doom of the Adamic race.
  The Bible may be likened to a beautiful and complex girdle or belt, with a corresponding connecting clasp at each end, one the complement of the other. Do away with either, the girdle is useless as a girdle. So here, Genesis and Revelation are the two clasps of the Divine Word, which link together and enclose between them in "perfection of beauty" and harmony the whole of the Scriptures in which God has been pleased to reveal His "Eternal Purpose" (Appendix 198).
 2.  ITS SCOPE, etc. The key to unlock the meaning and scope of the book is found in 1:10. "The Lord's day" = THE  DAY  OF  THE LORD (Jehovah). (See Isaiah 2:12) John was not in "a state of spiritual exaltation" on any particular Sunday at Patmos, as the result of which "he saw visions and dreamed dreams". But as we are told, "I came to be (or found myself) by the Spirit in the day of the Lord" (compare Ezekiel 1:1; 8:3, etc.). He is then shown, and both sees and hears (22:8), the things he records.
  "The day of the Lord" being yet future, it follows that the whole book must concern the things belonging to "that day", and consequently is wholly prophecy. Though partial adumbrations of judgment may be traced in connection with affairs of past history, yet the significant, solemn warning here (1:10) that the "judgments" in Revelation relate to the day of the Lord, "the day of vengeance" (compare Isaiah 61:2; 63:4, etc.), makes it clear that the book concerns the future, and the day of the unveiling (the Apocalypse) of the great "King of kings and Lord of lords" (see Appendix 198).
  Its scope is further shown by its place in the Canon. The order of the separate books of the New Testament varies, but they are always formed in four groups that never vary chronologically. (See Appendix 95. II)
  The Gospels contain the prophecies of the great tribulation: Revelation describes it. Between, come the Scriptures of the intermediate period, Acts and the Epistles. Chronologically and canonically, Revelation follows after the Epistles, though logically in God's purpose (Ephesians 3:11) it follows the Gospels. Therefore we see the scope embraces the wind-up of all the affairs of time; it records the end of prophecy, the end of "the secret of God" (10:7), the end of all "enmity towards God", and the dawn of the "ages of the ages".
 3.  ITS HEBREW CHARACTER. The language of the book is Greek: its thoughts and idioms are Hebrew. This links it with the Old Testament, and shows that its great purpose is to declare God's final dealings with the Jew and the Gentile as such; and that "the church of God" of the Pauline Epistles and this dispensation (Appendix 195) has no place in Revelation (other than in association with its glorified Head). See Appendix 193. All the imagery of the book, Temple, Tabernacle, etc., belongs to Israel.

  Again, in Matthew (the Hebrew Gospel) are some 92 quotations from and references to the Old Testament. In Hebrews there are 102. In Revelation are found no fewer than 285. This emphatically stamps its close connection with the Old Testament and Israel; and it equally stamps the latest utterances of "modern scholarship", namely, that "whatever view may be taken of the indebtedness to Jewish sources, there can be no doubt that he (the writer) has produced a book which taken as a whole is profoundly Christian", as being the dicta of men who, wittingly or unwittingly, are blind to this fundamental fact of Revelation.

  The TITLES  OF CHRIST further attest its Hebrew character:

"The Son of Man" (1:13; 14:14). Never found in the Pauline Epistles to the "churches". See Appendix 98. XVI and Appendix 99.


"The Almighty" (1:8; etc.). See Appendix 98. IV.


"The Lord God" (3:8 and see 22:6). Compare this title with Genesis 2:4—3:24 in connexion with "paradise".


"The First and the Last" (1:11, 17; 2:8; 22:13). Never associated with "the church which is His body".


"The Prince of the kings of the earth" (1:5). Never used in connexion with "the church".


"Who is to come" (= The Coming One), 1:4, etc. Occurs sixteen times in the Gospels, Acts, Hebrews (10:37); three times in Revelation, and nowhere else.


"The Living One" (1:18). A title only found in Daniel (4:34; 12:7) and six times in this book. Thus linking Daniel and Revelation in a very special manner.

 4.  The "BRIDE" AND  THE "WIFE" of 21:9 must not be confused with the "wife" of 19:7. The latter is Israel called out from among the nations for blessing in "the Land"; the earthly consort of "the Great King" (compare Psalm 45; Jeremiah 3:14). This "wife" (19:7) is connected with the Millennial Jerusalem which, with the rest of the earth "that now" is, will pass away and give place to the new earth with the new Jerusalem, succeeding and replacing the former. "The bride, the Lamb's wife" of 21:9, is still of Israel, but the Israel of the "heavenly calling" (Hebrews 3:1): all those connected with the "heavenly country" and "the city with the foundations" for which they "looked" (Hebrews 11:13-16); the "Jerusalem above" of Galatians 4:26. Hence the significance of the term "bride" (numphe) in 21:9.

  The Israel of 19:7 is not spoken of as bride (numphe), because she has become wife (gune). Compare the "married to you" = am become your husband (consummation), of Jeremiah 3:14, and see the Note there relating to the "restoration" time. Here (21:9) the term "bride" indicates clearly that the betrothal has taken place and that the marriage will be consummated when the bride shall have come down out of heaven. John sees her coming down (present participle), 21:10.
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  The loose way in which we speak of a "bride" as not only a contracting party at the time of the marriage ceremony, but also of her after she has become wife (gune), is responsible for much confusion as to the "wife" of 19:7 and the bride-wife of 21:9. Strictly speaking, "bride" is to be applied only to a betrothed virgin (Greek parthenos = Hebrew bethulah), when the marriage (legal) ceremony takes place. Directly after, she ceases to be "bride", and has become (legally) "wife", although from the forensic point of view consummation of the marriage may be delayed (compare Matthew 1:25, and see the Note there).
  According to the Mosaic Law, a betrothed maid (Hebrew bethulah) was legally a wife ('ishshah), (compare Matthew 1:18, 20 with Deuteronomy 22:23, 24); hence Joseph's trouble and temptation (see Matthew 1:20). A careful study of the terms in Matthew 1:18-25 will afford a clue to a clearer understanding of the terms "bride" and the two "wives" of Revelation 19:7; 21:9 than volumes of commentary.
  If the earthly millennial metropolis is real, so is this also, for both are spoken of in the same terms. And if the laying of "thy stones with fair colors" and "thy foundations with sapphires" (Isaiah 54:11) is spoken of the day when God is to be called "the God of the whole earth" (see verse 5), it must refer to the time of Isaiah 65:17; 66:22 and Revelation 21:1. Moreover, laying foundations implies a solid substratum on which to lay them, that is to say, earth. Foundations are of no use to a city "suspended" in the air!
  The same argument applies also to the "tree of life" and the "water of life". If the "river" and "trees for meat" of Ezekiel 47:1-12 are real and literal, so also are the "tree" and the "water" of life here. Again, both are spoken of in identical terms. There is no more room for "imagery" in the one case than the other. The "tree of life" lost in the paradise of Genesis is here seen restored to the whole earth in the day when "the God of the whole earth" will "tabernacle" with men,—(and be) "their God" (Revelation 21:3). There is no place for "symbolism" in either case.
 5.  The more important Figures of Speech are noted. These will supply helpful keys where the symbolism is not Divinely explained or indicated, and will enable the student to judge whether Revelation is purely Johannine "symbolic imagery", as some affirm, and a "legitimate appeal to Christian imagination"; or whether the book is, as it claims to be, a deliberate setting forth proleptically of the actual scenes and events with which God declares that His purposes concerning the heaven and the earth shall be consummated.
 6.  NUMBERS hold a prominent and significant place in Revelation. These in order are:—2 (occurs eleven times); 3 (eleven); 3½ (twice); 4 (thirty); 5 (three); 6 (twice, including 13:18); 7 (fifty-four); 10 (nine); 12 (twenty-two); 24 (seven); 42 (twice); 144 (four); 666 (once); 1,000 (nine); 1,260 (twice); 1,600 (once); 7,000 (once); 12,000 (thirteen); 144,000 (three); 100,000,000 (once, 5:11); 200,000,000 (once, 9:16). Twenty-one in all (3×7 = 21. See Appendix 10).
  Seven is thus seen to be the predominant number, occurring fifty-four times (3×3×3×2 = 54. Appendix 10).

Twelve comes next—twenty-two occurrences Seven, ten, and twelve, with their multiples, run throughout the book. In the Notes attention is called to other numbers of great significance. The student will thus be enabled to work out for himself many problems connected with the question of number in Scripture. Some examples are here given of word occurrences.

6 times;

Babulon, basanismos (torment), theion (brimstone):

7 times;

abussos (bottomless pit), axios (worthy), basileuo (reign), etoimazo (make ready), makarios (blessed), propheteia (prophecy), semeion (sign, etc.), hupomene (patience), charagma (mark), Christos:

8 times;

Amen, thusiasterion (alter), planao (deceive), Satanas, sphragizo (seal), stephanos (crown), nux (night):

9 times;

deka (ten), kainos (new), krino (judge), marturia (testimony), pantokrator (Almighty), polemos (battle, etc.):

10 times;

alethinos (true), eikon (image), thumos (wrath), keras (horn), prosopon (face), hora (hour), salpizo (to sound):

12 times; dunamis (strength), phiale (vial):
14 times;

aster (star), Iesous, doulos (servant); etc.

  The word arnion (lamb) occurs 29 times ("the Lamb" 28 = 4 sevens: the other occurs 13:11). Elsewhere only in John 21:15. hagios (holy) occurs 26 times according to the texts, which omit 15:3 and 22:6, and add 22:21; otherwise 27 times (3×9 or 3×3×3): doxa (glory) occurs 17 times (10 + 7): eulogia (blessing and ascription) 3 times; ethnos (nations) 23 times; nikao (overcome) 17 times: drakon (dragon) 13 times: plege (plague, etc.) occurs 16 times (4×4).

  Phrases occur frequently, for example (i) he that hath an ear 7 times; if any man hath an ear occurs once: (ii) third part, 16 times: (iii) the kings of the earth, 9 times.

 7.  CONCLUSION. The "tree of life" (22:2) and the "water of life" (verses 1, 17) are seen to be the great central subjects of the new earth. No longer will there be any "curse" (verse 3). In place of the "Fall" we have restoration. Instead of expulsion—"lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever" (Genesis 3:22)—is the gracious invitation to those who "have right to the tree of life" (verse 22), "Come, whosoever desireth, and let him take the water of life freely" (verse 17).

 8.  The Benediction (22:21) not only completes the correspondence of the Structure (page 1883 of The Companion Bible), but appropriately closes the whole of the Book of God. "Grace and truth came by Jesus Christ" (John 1:17). In this dispensation all is of grace. Grace now, glory hereafter (compare Psalm 84:11). In the time coming, with which Revelation is concerned, grace will be given to "endure to the end" (Matthew 24:13) to all who come "out of the great tribulation" (7:14); to all slain under antichrist "for the Word of God" (6:9); and to all who "have the testimony of Jesus Christ" (12:17). "Grace, grace." ALL  IS  OF GRACE!
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