Appendix 76 To The Companion Bible.

  It is alleged by some modern critics that the Book of Ecclesiastes belongs to a much later date, and was written by a later hand, because certain words are alleged to belong to a later period of Hebrew literature. Several of these words are noted in the margin, but it may be useful to the student to find them together in one list.

 i.  kanas, "gathered", chapter 2:8. But it occurs in Psalms 33:7; 147:2. Ezekiel 22:21; 39:28.

 ii.  medinah, "provinces", chapter 2:8; 5:8. But it is found in 1Kings 20:14, 15, 17, 19. Lamentations 1:1. Ezekiel 19:8.

 iii.  mikreh, "event", or happening, chapter 2:14, 15; 3:19 (that which befalleth), and 9:2, 3. But it is found in Ruth 2:3; and 1Samuel 6:9; 20:26.

 iv.  shalat, "have rule", chapter 2:19. But the word is found in Psalm 119:133, and a derivative of it even in Genesis 42:6.

 v.  hephez, "purpose", chapter 3:1, 17; 5:4, 8; 8:6; 12:1, 10. But it is found in 1Samuel 15:22, where it is rendered "delight"; also 18:25. 2Samuel 22:20 (the verb). 1Kings 5:8, 9, 10; 9:11; 10:13; where it is rendered "desire". Even in Job 21:21; 22:3; where it is rendered "pleasure". In Isaiah 53:10 "pleasure" evidently means what Jehovah has been pleased to purpose. Compare Isaiah 44:28; 46:10.

 vi.  soph, "the end", chapter 3:11; 7:2; 12:13 (conclusion).
This is found in 2Chronicles 20:16. Joel 2:20, where it is rendered "hinder part". The verb is found in Numbers 22:30, 30, and repeatedly in Job.

 vii.  takaph, "prevail", chapter 4:12; but the only two other places where it occurs are Job 14:20 and 15:24.

 viii.  misken, "poor", chapter 4:13; 9:15, 15, 16; but the derivative of it is found in Deuteronomy 8:9.

 ix.  nekasim, "wealth", chapter 5:19; 6:2. This is found as early as Joshua 22:8. 2Chronicles 1:11, 12.

 x.  'amad, "stand", "appear", chapter 8:3. This occurs in Genesis 18:8, 22; 19:27; 24:30; 41:1, 17; 43:15. Exodus 9:10; 14:19; 18:13; 20:18, 21, etc.; Leviticus 19:16.

 xi.  kasher, "prosper", chapter 10:10 (profitable); 11:6 (prosper). But it is found in Psalm 68:6, where "with chains" should perhaps be rendered "into prosperity".

 xii.  zua', "tremble", chapter 12:3. But we find it in Habakkuk 2:7 ("vex"), and its derivative zeva'ah, Isaiah 28:19. Jeremiah 15:4; 24:9.

  These examples will be sufficient to show how slender is the argument on which an objection so grave, and a conclusion so premature, is based. Some of the references given above may be later, of course, than the true date of Ecclesiastes; nevertheless, they are all much earlier than the alleged date, which is about 200 B.C. or less.

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