THE USAGE OF PNEUMA
IN THE NEW TESTAMENT.

This Is Appendix 101 From The Companion Bible.

  Pneuma = Spirit, is the Greek word corresponding with the Hebrew ruach in the Old Testament.

  The usage of the latter will be found in Appendix 9, and should be compared with this Appendix.

  As to the Greek word (pneuma): we must consider I. the occurrences, and II. the usage:—

 I.  Pneuma occurs in the Received Greek Text 385 times. Of these, all the Critical Texts (see Appendix 94. vii) agree in omitting nine¹ (or in substituting another reading) and in adding three.²

  The occurrences are thus distributed:—
 
When taken back to and by God, man, without pneuma, becomes and is called "a dead soul" in each of the thirteen occurrences rendered in Authorized Version "dead body", etc. See Appendix 13. ix.
 7.  C
HARACTER, as being in itself invisible, and manifested only in one's actions, etc. Romans 8:15. (2Timothy 1:7, etc.).
 8.  O
THER INVISIBLE CHARACTERISTICS (by Figure of Speech Metonymy, Appendix 6): such as feelings or desires (Matthew 26:41, etc.); or that which is supernatural.
 9.  M
AN (physiologically), pneuma being put by Figure of Speech Synecdoche (Appendix 6) for the whole person; a part for the whole (as in Luke 1:47, "my spirit" = I myself.) See Appendix 9. VII.
 10.  A
DVERBIALLY. But this is only once, in the Authorized Version, where it is translated "spiritually" in Romans 8:6. Compare the Revised Version rendering.
 11.  A
NGELS, or SPIRIT-BEINGS. As in Acts 8:29. Hebrews 1:7, 14. 1Peter 3:19. Revelation 1:4.
 12.  D
EMONS, or evil spirit-beings, as in Mark 7:25, 26. Luke 10:17, 20, etc.
 13.  T
HE RESURRECTION BODY, as in 1Corinthians 15:45. 1Peter 3:18; 4:6.
 14Pneuma hagion = holy spirit, and is so printed in The Companion Bible. This usage (without Articles) occurs 52 times in the New Testament, and is always wrongly rendered "the Holy Spirit" (with the definite Article, and capital letters). Consequently there is no stronger rendering available when there are two Articles present in the Greek (to pneuma to hagion), which means "the Spirit the Holy [Spirit]". Hence, the English reader can never tell which of the two very different Greek expressions he is reading.

  Pneuma hagion (without Articles) is never used of the Giver (the Holy Spirit), but only and always of His gift. What this gift is may be seen by comparing Acts 1:4, 5 with Luke 24:49, where "the promise of the Father" is called (in the former passages) pneuma hagion, and in the latter is called "power from on high". This "power from on high" includes whatever gifts the Holy Spirit may bestow "according to His own will". What particular gift is meant is sometimes stated, for example "faith", "power", etc. This will be found to be the case in every one of the 52 occurrences. See Acts 2:4 (the first occurrence subsequent to Acts 1:4, 5), where we read "they were all filled ¹ with pneuma hagion, and began to speak with other tongues, as THE Spirit gave". Here the Giver and His gift are strictly distinguished.
  The following are the 52 occurrences of pneuma hagion. Those marked * are the subject of a various reading, and h.p. denotes hagion pneuma: Matthew 1:18, 20; 3:11. Mark 1:8. Luke 1:15, 35, 41, 67; 2:25; 3:16; 4:1-; 11:13. John 1:-33; 7:-39; 20:22. Acts 1:2, 5; 2:4-; 4:8, 31*; 6:3, 5; 7:55; 8:15, 17, 19; 9:17; 10:38; 11:16, 24; 13:9, 52; 19:2, 2. Romans 5:5; 9:1; 14:17; 15:13, 16. 1Corinthians 2:13*; 6:19h.p.; 12:-3. 2Corinthians 6:6. 1Thessalonians 1:5, 6. 2Timothy 1:14. Titus 3:5. Hebrews 2:4; 6:4. 1Peter 1:12. 2Peter 1:21. Jude 20.
  The above 14 usages of pneuma, and the 52 occurrences of pneuma hagion, are all indicated in the notes of The Companion Bible.
____________________________
  ¹ The Verb to fill takes three Cases after it. In the Active, the Accusative of the vessel, or whatever is filled; and the Genitive, of what it is filled with. In the Passive, the Dative, of the filler; and the Genitive, of what the vessel is filled with. In Ephesians 5:18 it is the Dative, strengthened by the Preposition (en pneumati), denoting the Holy Spirit Himself as being the one Who fills with other gifts than "wine".
Received
Text.
To be
omitted.¹
To be
added.²
Net
result.
In the Gospels .   .   .
In the Acts   .   .   .   .
In the earlier Pauline
In the later Pauline   .
In the Apostolic Epp.
In the Apocalypse   .
105
  69
  21
140
  27
  23 
2
1
2
2
2
— 

1

1

1
103
  69
  19
139
  25
  24 
385  9 3 379 
 
  The above 385 occurrences in the Received Text are thus rendered in the Authorized Version:—
  "Spirit", 133; "spirit", 153; "spiritual", 1;
    "ghost", 2; "life", 1; and "wind", 1          .
=291
  In the Genitive Case, "spiritually", 1      .    . =    1
  With "hagion" (= holy) = "Holy Spirit", 4;
    "Holy Ghost", 89     .         .      .      .     .
=  93
 In the margin:—   385
  ===
  "Breath" is given twice as an alternative for
    "spirit", and once for "life".
  "Of the spirit" is given as an alternative for
    "spiritually"; and
  "spirit" is given as an alternative for "spiritual".

 II.  The usages of pneuma. The following have been noted in The Companion Bible. It is used for
 1.  G
OD. "God is pneuma" (John 4:24-). Not "a" spirit, for there is no indefinite Article in the Greek.
 2.  C
HRIST, as in 1Corinthians 6:17; 15:45; and especially 2Corinthians 3:17, 18 (= the pneuma of verse 6-, etc.).
 3.  T
HE HOLY SPIRIT, generally with the Article, denoting the Giver, as distinct from His gifts. See Number 14, below. After a Preposition the Article is sometimes to be understood, as being latent.
 4.  T
HE OPERATIONS OF THE HOLY SPIRIT, in the bestowal of spiritual gifts, as in 1Corinthians 12:4-11.
 5.  T
HE NEW NATURE in the child of God, because "begotten" in us by God, as in John 3:3-7. 1John 5:1, 4. See note on Matthew 1:1. This is more especially the Pauline usage: spirit as opposed to what is of the flesh (John 3:6. Romans 8:4). Hence called "pneuma Theou" (= Divine pneuma) (Romans 8:9. 1Corinthians 7:40; 12:3-), and pneuma Christou (= Christ pneuma) in Romans 8:9.
 6.  M
AN (psychologically), pneuma being imparted to man, making him "a living psuche" (= "a living soul", or being, as in Genesis 2:7. Psalm 104:29, 30. Ecclesiastes 12:7).
____________________________
  ¹ Luke 2:40; 9:55. Acts 18:5. Romans 8:1. 1Corinthians 6:20. Ephesians 5:9. 1Timothy 4:12. 1Peter 1:22. 1John 5:7.
  ² Acts 4:25. Philippians 4:23. Revelation 22:6.

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