Appendix 190 To The Companion Bible.


 1.  diakonos is a servant as seen in activity (compare dioko, to pursue). It occurs eight times in the Gospels (not in Luke); is twice translated "minister" (Matthew 20:26. Mark 10:43); six times "servant". The other twenty-two occurrences are in Paul's epistles; translated "minister", except Romans 16:1 ("servant"), and Philippians 1:1. 1Timothy 3:8, 12 ("deacon"). It is not found in Acts, where the institution of the so-called deacons is recorded.

 2.  doulos = slave, bond-servant. There are seventy-three occurrences in the Gospels, three in Acts, thirty in Paul's epistles, five in the epistles of James, 1 and 2Peter, and Jude, and fourteen in the Revelation. It is translated "servant", except in 1Corinthians 12:13. Galatians 3:28. Eph. 6:8. Col. 3:11. Rev. 6:15; 13:16; 19:18, where the rendering is "bond" or "bondman". The feminine doule occurs Luke 1:38, 48. Acts 2:18; translated "handmaiden"; doulon, "servant", occurs only in Romans 6:19.

 3.  huperetes means an under-rower, and is used, generally, for one in a subordinate capacity. It is translated "officer" eleven times, "minister" five times, and "servant" four times.

 4.  leitourgos = one who serves an office. In the Old Testament used of the priests and Levites. In the New Testament, of God's ministers, except Philippians 2:25 (of Epaphroditus). It occurs five times.

 5.  misthios and misthotos mean hired servants (from misthos, pay). Occurs Luke 15:17, 19. Mark 1:20. John 10:12, 13.

 6.  oiketes is a household servant (oikos, a house), and is so rendered in Acts 10:7. Occurs Luke 16:13. Romans 14:4. 1Peter 2:18; "servant".

 7.  pais (Appendix 108. iv) means a boy, and then, like Latin puer, French garçon, and in English, boy, it means a servant. Rendered "servant" eleven times, and should also be so translated in Acts 3:13, 26; 4:27, 30.

 8.  therapon is an attendant, one who performs services voluntarily, whether freeman or slave. Occurs only Hebrews 3:5.


 1.  diakonia is the service rendered by a diakonos. Occurs once in the Gospels (Luke 10:40); eight times in Acts; twenty-four times in Paul's epistles, and once in the Revelation: rendered "ministry", "ministration", etc., save Acts 11:29, where it is "relief", the result of service, and Romans 11:13 (office).

 2.  douleia. Occurs five times, always translated "bondage".

 3.  latreia. Occurs five times, translated "service", or "divine service".

 4.  leitourgia. Occurs six times; translated "ministration" (Luke 1:23), "service" (2Corinthians 9:12; Philippians 2:17, 30), and "ministry" (Hebrews 8:6; 9:21). From this comes English "liturgy".


 1.  diakoneo. Occurs thirty-seven times, and is translated "serve", "minister", etc., and twice "use the office of a deacon" (1Timothy 3:10, 13).

 2.  douleuo = to serve as a bondman. It occurs twenty-five times; translated "serve", "do service", except John 8:33; Acts 7:7; Galatians 4:9, 25; "be in bondage".

 3.  douloo is to enslave. Occurs eight times, twice in the active sense, Acts 7:6; 1Corinthians 9:19; elsewhere, in the passive (Romans 6:18, 22. 1Corinthians 7:15. Galatians 4:3. Titus 2:3. 2Peter 2:19).

 4.  hupereteo. (Compare I. 3, above.) Occurs only in Acts 13:36; 20:34; 24:23.

 5.  latreuo. (Compare II. 3, above.) Occurs twenty-one times, always referring to the worship of God, save in Acts 7:42. Translated "serve", or "do the service", seventeen times, and "worship" four times.

 6.  leitourgeo. (Compare I. 4; II. 4, above.) Occurs three times; Acts 13:2. Romans 15:27. Hebrews 10:11, rendered "minister".

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